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The oligodendrocyte lineage genes Olig1 and Olig2 encode related bHLH proteins that are coexpressed in neural progenitors. Targeted disruption of these two genes sheds light on the ontogeny of oligodendroglia and genetic requirements for their development from multipotent CNS progenitors. Olig2 is required for oligodendrocyte and motor neuron specification(More)
Whether the brain tumor medulloblastoma originates from stem cells or restricted progenitor cells is unclear. To investigate this, we activated oncogenic Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in multipotent and lineage-restricted central nervous system (CNS) progenitors. We observed that normal unipotent cerebellar granule neuron precursors (CGNPs) derive from hGFAP(+)(More)
The size and extent of folding of the mammalian cerebral cortex are important factors that influence a species' cognitive abilities and sensorimotor skills. Studies in various animal models and in humans have provided insight into the mechanisms that regulate cortical growth and folding. Both protein-coding genes and microRNAs control cortical size, and(More)
The human left and right cerebral hemispheres are anatomically and functionally asymmetric. To test whether human cortical asymmetry has a molecular basis, we studied gene expression levels between the left and right embryonic hemispheres using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). We identified and verified 27 differentially expressed genes, which(More)
BACKGROUND Organizing signals such as Sonic hedgehog are thought to specify neuronal subtype identity by regulating the expression of homeodomain proteins in progenitors of the embryonic neural tube. One of these, Nkx2.2, is necessary and sufficient for the development of V3 interneurons. RESULTS We report that Olig genes, encoding basic helix-loop-helix(More)
We propose an energy-aware video streaming system for portable computing devices, in which the video can be played back for the specified duration within the remaining battery amount. To save power, we introduce techniques (i) to reduce playback quality of a video at an intermediate proxy and (ii) to shorten working time of the network I/F card using(More)
In the human brain, distinct functions tend to be localized in the left or right hemispheres, with language ability usually localized predominantly in the left and spatial recognition in the right. Furthermore, humans are perhaps the only mammals who have preferential handedness, with more than 90% of the population more skillful at using the right hand,(More)
Opioid and tachykinin systems are involved in modulation of pain transmission in the spinal cord. Regulation of surface opioid receptors on nociceptive afferents is critical for opioid analgesia. Plasma-membrane insertion of delta-opioid receptors (DORs) is induced by stimulus-triggered exocytosis of DOR-containing large dense-core vesicles (LDCVs), but how(More)
One of the most notable characteristics of synaptic transmission is the wide variation in synaptic strength in response to identical stimulation. In hippocampal neurons, approximately one-third of axonal mitochondria are highly motile, and some dynamically pass through presynaptic boutons. This raises a fundamental question: can motile mitochondria(More)
Analysis of in vitro cell motility is a useful tool for assessing cellular response to a range of factors. However, the majority of cell-tracking systems available are designed primarily for use with fluorescently labelled images. In this paper, five commonly used tracking systems are examined for their performance compared with the use of a novel in-house(More)