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The oligodendrocyte lineage genes Olig1 and Olig2 encode related bHLH proteins that are coexpressed in neural progenitors. Targeted disruption of these two genes sheds light on the ontogeny of oligodendroglia and genetic requirements for their development from multipotent CNS progenitors. Olig2 is required for oligodendrocyte and motor neuron specification(More)
It is more than 50 years since the lysosome was discovered. Since then its hydrolytic machinery, including proteases and other hydrolases, has been fairly well identified and characterized. Among these are the cysteine cathepsins, members of the family of papain-like cysteine proteases. They have unique reactive-site properties and an uneven tissue-specific(More)
Whether the brain tumor medulloblastoma originates from stem cells or restricted progenitor cells is unclear. To investigate this, we activated oncogenic Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in multipotent and lineage-restricted central nervous system (CNS) progenitors. We observed that normal unipotent cerebellar granule neuron precursors (CGNPs) derive from hGFAP(+)(More)
MicroRNAs, processed by the RNAase III enzyme Dicer, are approximately 22 nucleotide endogenous noncoding small RNAs. The function of Dicer in the mouse central nervous system (CNS) development is not well understood. Here, we show that specifically deleting Dicer expression in the CNS and in the cerebral cortex using two Cre lines results in reduced(More)
The human left and right cerebral hemispheres are anatomically and functionally asymmetric. To test whether human cortical asymmetry has a molecular basis, we studied gene expression levels between the left and right embryonic hemispheres using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). We identified and verified 27 differentially expressed genes, which(More)
The tumour stroma is an active participant during cancer progression. Stromal cells promote tumour progression and metastasis through multiple mechanisms including enhancing tumour invasiveness and angiogenesis, and suppressing immune surveillance. We report here that miR-126/miR-126(*), a microRNA pair derived from a single precursor, independently(More)
In the adult central nervous system, two distinct populations of glial cells expressing the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan NG2 have been described: bipolar progenitor cells and more differentiated "synantocytes." These cells have diverse neurological functions, including critical roles in synaptic transmission, repair, and regeneration. Despite their(More)
Opioid and tachykinin systems are involved in modulation of pain transmission in the spinal cord. Regulation of surface opioid receptors on nociceptive afferents is critical for opioid analgesia. Plasma-membrane insertion of delta-opioid receptors (DORs) is induced by stimulus-triggered exocytosis of DOR-containing large dense-core vesicles (LDCVs), but how(More)
Researchers and social observers have both believed that hashtags, as a new type of organizational objects of information, play a dual role in online microblogging communities (e.g., Twitter). On one hand, a hashtag serves as a bookmark of content, which links tweets with similar topics; on the other hand, a hashtag serves as the symbol of a community(More)