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The oligodendrocyte lineage genes Olig1 and Olig2 encode related bHLH proteins that are coexpressed in neural progenitors. Targeted disruption of these two genes sheds light on the ontogeny of oligodendroglia and genetic requirements for their development from multipotent CNS progenitors. Olig2 is required for oligodendrocyte and motor neuron specification(More)
The human left and right cerebral hemispheres are anatomically and functionally asymmetric. To test whether human cortical asymmetry has a molecular basis, we studied gene expression levels between the left and right embryonic hemispheres using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). We identified and verified 27 differentially expressed genes, which(More)
The size and extent of folding of the mammalian cerebral cortex are important factors that influence a species' cognitive abilities and sensorimotor skills. Studies in various animal models and in humans have provided insight into the mechanisms that regulate cortical growth and folding. Both protein-coding genes and microRNAs control cortical size, and(More)
BACKGROUND Organizing signals such as Sonic hedgehog are thought to specify neuronal subtype identity by regulating the expression of homeodomain proteins in progenitors of the embryonic neural tube. One of these, Nkx2.2, is necessary and sufficient for the development of V3 interneurons. RESULTS We report that Olig genes, encoding basic helix-loop-helix(More)
How synaptic-vesicle release is controlled at the basic release structure, the active zone, is poorly understood. By performing cell-attached current and capacitance recordings predominantly at single active zones in rat calyces, we found that single active zones contained 5-218 (mean, 42) calcium channels and 1-10 (mean, 5) readily releasable vesicles(More)
We propose an energy-aware video streaming system for portable computing devices, in which the video can be played back for the specified duration within the remaining battery amount. To save power, we introduce techniques (i) to reduce playback quality of a video at an intermediate proxy and (ii) to shorten working time of the network I/F card using(More)
2177 REFERENCES [1] H. Akcay and B. Ninness, " Orthonormal basis functions for continuous time systems and Lp convergence, " Math. A practical approach to performance analysis of saturated systems with application to fighter aircraft flight controllers, " in Anti-windup design with guaranteed regions of stability: An LMI-based approach, " IEEE Trans.(More)
Auxin response factors (ARFs) bind specifically to auxin response elements (AuxREs) in the promoters of down-stream target genes and play roles in plant responses to diverse environmental factors. Using the latest updated Medicago truncatula reference genome sequence, a comprehensive characterization and analysis of 24 MtARF (M. truncatula ARF) genes were(More)
Despite our growing appreciation of the large contribution made by fine roots to soil organic carbon pool and nutrient cycling, their decomposition dynamics still remain poorly quantified. In a field experiment, we conducted a 4-year litterbag study on different root size classes (< 0.5 and 0.5–2.0 mm) in four temperate tree species. Very fine roots (< 0.5(More)