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Bcl-2 is an integral membrane protein located mainly on the outer membrane of mitochondria. Overexpression of Bcl-2 prevents cells from undergoing apoptosis in response to a variety of stimuli. Cytosolic cytochrome c is necessary for the initiation of the apoptotic program, suggesting a possible connection between Bcl-2 and cytochrome c, which is normally(More)
We describe a technology, the NanoString nCounter gene expression system, which captures and counts individual mRNA transcripts. Advantages over existing platforms include direct measurement of mRNA expression levels without enzymatic reactions or bias, sensitivity coupled with high multiplex capability, and digital readout. Experiments performed on 509(More)
The important issue of photoreactivation DNA repair in plants has become even more interesting in recent years because a family of genes that are highly homologous to photoreactivating DNA repair enzymes but that function as blue light photoreceptors has been isolated. Here, we report the isolation of a novel photolyase-like sequence from Arabidopsis(More)
Given the importance of subcellular location to protein function, computational simulations of cell behaviors will ultimately require the ability to model the distributions of proteins within organelles and other structures. Toward this end, statistical learning methods have previously been used to build models of sets of two-dimensional microscope images,(More)
To explore the mechanism by which herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 infection is related to HIV-1 acquisition, we conducted in situ analysis of the cellular infiltrate from sequential biopsies of HSV-2 lesions from patients on and off antiviral therapy. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and a mixed population of plasmacytoid and myeloid dendritic cells (DCs), including(More)
Many proteins or other biological macromolecules are localized to more than one subcellular structure. The fraction of a protein in different cellular compartments is often measured by colocalization with organelle-specific fluorescent markers, requiring availability of fluorescent probes for each compartment and acquisition of images for each in(More)
Dexamethasone treatment increases urea excretion and decreases urea permeability and urea transporter UT-A1 protein abundance in the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) of adrenalectomized rats. We examined the effect of dexamethasone treatment for 3 days on the abundance of several UT-A mRNA transcripts in rat renal medulla. By Northern blot analysis, a(More)
Glycoprotein D (gD) is a structural component of the herpes simplex virus (HSV) envelope which is essential for virus entry into host cells. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells are one of the few cell types which are nonpermissive for the entry of many HSV strains. However, when these cells are transformed with the gene for the herpesvirus entry mediator(More)
Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake responds dynamically and sensitively to changes in cytosolic Ca2+ levels and plays a crucial role in sequestering the large Ca2+ load induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation. However, the precise interrelationships between NMDA receptor activation, cytosolic Ca2+ increase, and mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake remain(More)
Ca2+ influx through NMDA receptor-gated channels and the subsequent rise in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) have been implicated in cytotoxic processes that lead to irreversible neuronal injury. While many studies have focused on cytosolic Ca2+ homeostasis, much less is known about Ca2+ fluxes in subcellular organelles, such as mitochondria. The(More)