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The ageing of the human brain is a cause of cognitive decline in the elderly and the major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. The time in life when brain ageing begins is undefined. Here we show that transcriptional profiling of the human frontal cortex from individuals ranging from 26 to 106 years of age defines a set of genes with reduced expression(More)
At fast CNS synapses, the role of asynchronous release following initial synchronous release is poorly understood. We examined the contribution of asynchronous release to GABAergic transmission in the cochlear nucleus across a 40-fold range of electrical stimulus frequencies. Whereas quantal release was highly synchronized at low frequencies, it was largely(More)
Intracellular accumulation of mutant Huntingtin with expanded polyglutamine provides a context-dependent cytotoxicity critical for the pathogenesis of Huntington disease (Everett, C. M., and Wood, N. W. (2004) Brain 127, 2385-2405). Here we demonstrate that the accumulation of mutant Huntingtin is highly sensitive to the expression of beclin 1, a gene(More)
Human neurons are functional over an entire lifetime, yet the mechanisms that preserve function and protect against neurodegeneration during ageing are unknown. Here we show that induction of the repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor (REST; also known as neuron-restrictive silencer factor, NRSF) is a universal feature of normal ageing in human(More)
Inwardly rectifying K+ channels bind intracellular magnesium and polyamines to generate inward rectification. We have examined the architecture of the inner pore of Kir2.1 channels by covalently attaching a constrained number (from one to four) of positively charged moieties of different sizes to the channel. Our results indicate that the inner pore is(More)
A formidable challenge in neural repair in the adult central nervous system (CNS) is the long distances that regenerating axons often need to travel in order to reconnect with their targets. Thus, a sustained capacity for axon regeneration is critical for achieving functional restoration. Although deletion of either phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN),(More)
Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders of aging are characterized by clinical and pathological features that are relatively specific to humans. To obtain greater insight into how brain aging has evolved, we compared age-related gene expression changes in the cortex of humans, rhesus macaques, and mice on a genome-wide scale. A small(More)
Aging is accompanied by cognitive decline in a major segment of the population and is the primary risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and other prevalent neurodegenerative disorders. Despite this central role in disease pathogenesis and morbidity, the aging of the brain has not been well understood at a molecular level. This review seeks to integrate what(More)
Dysregulation of autophagy, a cellular catabolic mechanism essential for degradation of misfolded proteins, has been implicated in multiple neurodegenerative diseases. However, the mechanisms that lead to the autophagy dysfunction are still not clear. Based on the results of a genome-wide screen, we show that reactive oxygen species (ROS) serve as common(More)