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The histories of crop domestication and breeding are recorded in genomes. Although tomato is a model species for plant biology and breeding, the nature of human selection that altered its genome remains largely unknown. Here we report a comprehensive analysis of tomato evolution based on the genome sequences of 360 accessions. We provide evidence that(More)
Nuclei of arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungi have been described as highly diverse due to their asexual nature and absence of a single cell stage with only one nucleus. This has raised fundamental questions concerning speciation, selection and transmission of the genetic make-up to next generations. Although this concept has become textbook knowledge, it is(More)
A new quadratic global placer called POLAR is proposed. POLAR is based on novel techniques for rough legalization and wirelength refinement. During look-ahead rough legalization (LAL), relative positions of cells are maintained as they are relocated with minimal displacement to relieve excess area density. For each "hotspot" where placement overfill occurs,(More)
We present higher degree immersed finite element (IFE) spaces that can be used to solve two dimensional second order elliptic interface problems without requiring the mesh to be aligned with the material interfaces. The interpolation errors in the proposed piecewise p th degree spaces yield optimal O(h p+1) and O(h p) convergence rates in the L 2 and broken(More)