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Most fruits in our daily diet are the products of domestication and breeding. Here we report a map of genome variation for a major fruit that encompasses ~3.6 million variants, generated by deep resequencing of 115 cucumber lines sampled from 3,342 accessions worldwide. Comparative analysis suggests that fruit crops underwent narrower bottlenecks during(More)
The histories of crop domestication and breeding are recorded in genomes. Although tomato is a model species for plant biology and breeding, the nature of human selection that altered its genome remains largely unknown. Here we report a comprehensive analysis of tomato evolution based on the genome sequences of 360 accessions. We provide evidence that(More)
Guanine nucleotide binding protein-like 3 (GNL3L) is the closest homologue of a stem cell-enriched factor nucleostemin in vertebrates. They share the same yeast orthologue, Grn1p, but only GNL3L can rescue the growth-deficient phenotype in Grn1-null yeasts. To determine the unique function of GNL3L, we identified estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRgamma)(More)
Nuclei of arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungi have been described as highly diverse due to their asexual nature and absence of a single cell stage with only one nucleus. This has raised fundamental questions concerning speciation, selection and transmission of the genetic make-up to next generations. Although this concept has become textbook knowledge, it is(More)
A new quadratic global placer called POLAR is proposed. POLAR is based on novel techniques for rough legalization and wirelength refinement. During look-ahead rough legalization (LAL), relative positions of cells are maintained as they are relocated with minimal displacement to relieve excess area density. For each "hotspot" where placement overfill occurs,(More)
Graph drawing research has been mostly oriented toward two-dimensional drawings. This paper describes an investigation of fundamental aspects of three-dimensional graph drawing. In particular we give three results concerning the space required for three-dimensional drawings. We show how to produce a grid drawing of an arbitraryn-vertex graph with all(More)
New numerical methods using the nite element formulation with Cartesian triangu-lations are presented for two dimensional elliptic interface problems involving discontinuities in the coeecients and singularities in the source terms. The triangulations do not need to t the interfaces. The idea is to construct basis functions which satisfy the interface jump(More)
Keywords: Information-centric networking In-network cache Cache coordination Cache decision Object availability a b s t r a c t Internet usage has drastically shifted from host-centric end-to-end communication to receiver-driven content retrieval. In order to adapt to this change, a handful of innovative information/content centric networking (ICN)(More)