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We have produced a draft sequence of the rice genome for the most widely cultivated subspecies in China, Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica, by whole-genome shotgun sequencing. The genome was 466 megabases in size, with an estimated 46,022 to 55,615 genes. Functional coverage in the assembled sequences was 92.0%. About 42.2% of the genome was in exact(More)
Reduced fecundity, associated with severe mental disorders, places negative selection pressure on risk alleles and may explain, in part, why common variants have not been found that confer risk of disorders such as autism, schizophrenia and mental retardation. Thus, rare variants may account for a larger fraction of the overall genetic risk than previously(More)
Emerging three-dimensional (3D) integration technology allows for the direct placement of DRAM on top of a microprocessor, significantly reducing the wire-delay between the two and thereby alleviating memory latency and bandwidth constraints. However, the increase in power density of 3D technology leads to elevated on-chip temperature, which results in an(More)
Rice is the principal food for over half of the population of the world. With its genome size of 430 megabase pairs (Mb), the cultivated rice species Oryza sativa is a model plant for genome research. Here we report the sequence analysis of chromosome 4 of O. sativa, one of the first two rice chromosomes to be sequenced completely. The finished sequence(More)
Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) has been used in main memory design for decades. However, DRAM consumes an increasing power budget and faces difficulties in scaling down for small feature size CMOS processing technologies. Compared to conventional DRAM, emerging phase change random access memory (PRAM) demonstrates superior power efficiency and(More)
The increasing constraints on power consumption in many computing systems point to the need for power modeling and estimation for all components of a system. The Operating System (OS) constitutes a major software component and dissipates a significant portion of total power in many modern application executions. Therefore, modeling OS power is imperative(More)
Population stratification is a potential problem for genome-wide association studies (GWAS), confounding results and causing spurious associations. Hence, understanding how allele frequencies vary across geographic regions or among subpopulations is an important prelude to analyzing GWAS data. Using over 350,000 genome-wide autosomal SNPs in over 6000 Han(More)
The exponential growth in the amount of genomic data has spurred growing interest in large scale analysis of genetic information. Bioinformatics applications, which explore computational methods to allow researchers to sift through the massive biological data and extract useful information, are becoming increasingly important computer workloads. This paper(More)