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Phase changes in blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) fMRI have been observed in humans; however, their exact origin has not yet been fully elucidated. To investigate this issue, we acquired gradient-echo (GE) BOLD and cerebral blood volume (CBV)-weighted fMRI data in anesthetized cats during visual stimulation at 4.7T and 9.4T, before and after(More)
The diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the sediment of the Pearl River Estuary were investigated by cloning and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). From one sediment sample S16, 36 AOA OTUs (3% cutoff) were obtained from three clone libraries constructed using three primer(More)
We consider the problem of key establishment over a wireless radio channel in the presence of a communication jammer, initially introduced in [13]. The communicating nodes are not assumed to pre-share any secret. The established key can later be used by a conventional spread-spectrum communication system. We introduce new communication concepts called(More)
In the rare-disasters setting, a key determinant of the equity premium is the size distribution of macroeconomic disasters, gauged by proportionate declines in per capita consumption or GDP. The long-term national-accounts data for up to 36 countries provide a large sample of disaster events of magnitude 10% or more. For this sample, a power-law density(More)
Using ammonia monooxygenase alpha-subunit (amoA) gene and 16S rRNA gene, the community structure and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in a nitrogen-removing reactor, which was operated for five phases, were characterized and quantified by cloning, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP),(More)
The spatiotemporal characteristics of cerebral blood volume (CBV) and flow (CBF) responses are important for understanding neurovascular coupling mechanisms and blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals. For this, cortical layer-dependent BOLD, CBV and CBF responses were measured at the cat visual cortex using fMRI. Major findings are: (i) the(More)
Cerebral blood volume (CBV)-weighted endogenous functional contrast can be obtained by the vascular space occupancy (VASO) technique. VASO relies on nonselective inversion for nulling blood signals, but the implementation of VASO at magnetic fields higher than 3 T is difficult due to converging T(1) values of tissue and blood water and a stronger(More)