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Phase changes in blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) fMRI have been observed in humans; however, their exact origin has not yet been fully elucidated. To investigate this issue, we acquired gradient-echo (GE) BOLD and cerebral blood volume (CBV)-weighted fMRI data in anesthetized cats during visual stimulation at 4.7T and 9.4T, before and after(More)
We consider the problem of key establishment over a wireless radio channel in the presence of a communication jammer, initially introduced in [13]. The communicating nodes are not assumed to pre-share any secret. The established key can later be used by a conventional spread-spectrum communication system. We introduce new communication concepts called(More)
BACKGROUND qualitative and quantitative changes in human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been implicated in various cancer types. A 4,977 bp deletion in the major arch of the mitochondrial genome is one of the most common mutations associated with a variety of human diseases and aging. METHODS we conducted a comprehensive study on clinical features and(More)
—Spread spectrum (SS) communication relies on the assumption that some secret is shared beforehand among communicating nodes in order to establish the spreading sequence for long-term wireless communication. Strasser et al. identified this as the circular dependency problem (CDP). This problem is exacerbated in large networks where nodes join and leave the(More)
The degradation of CMOS devices over the lifetime can cause the severe threat to the system performance and reliability at deep submicron semiconductor technologies. The negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) is among the most important sources of the aging mechanisms. Applying the traditional guardbanding technique to address the decreased speed of(More)
The diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the sediment of the Pearl River Estuary were investigated by cloning and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). From one sediment sample S16, 36 AOA OTUs (3% cutoff) were obtained from three clone libraries constructed using three primer(More)
― Ubiquitous wireless networking calls for efficient dynamic spectrum allocation (DSA) among heterogeneous users with diverse transmission types and bandwidth demands. To meet user-specific quality-of-service (QoS) requirements, the power and spectrum allocated to each user should lie inside a bounded region in order to be meaningful for the targeted(More)
The spatiotemporal characteristics of cerebral blood volume (CBV) and flow (CBF) responses are important for understanding neurovascular coupling mechanisms and blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals. For this, cortical layer-dependent BOLD, CBV and CBF responses were measured at the cat visual cortex using fMRI. Major findings are: (i) the(More)