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Complete reconstructions of vertebrate neuronal circuits on the synaptic level require new approaches. Here, serial section transmission electron microscopy was automated to densely reconstruct four volumes, totaling 670 μm(3), from the rat hippocampus as proving grounds to determine when axo-dendritic proximities predict synapses. First, in contrast with(More)
Bamboo represents the only major lineage of grasses that is native to forests and is one of the most important non-timber forest products in the world. However, no species in the Bambusoideae subfamily has been sequenced. Here, we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of moso bamboo (P. heterocycla var. pubescens). The 2.05-Gb assembly covers 95% of(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are studied as key regulators of gene expression involved in different diseases. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in miRNA genes or target sites (miRNA-related SNPs) have been proved to be associated with human diseases by affecting the miRNA-mediated regulatory function. To systematically analyze miRNA-related SNPs and(More)
One of the central problems in neuroscience is reconstructing synaptic connectivity in neural circuits. Synapses onto a neuron can be probed by sequentially stimulating potentially pre-synaptic neurons while monitoring the membrane voltage of the post-synaptic neuron. Reconstructing a large neural circuit using such a " brute force " approach is rather(More)
Recombinant human non-glycosylated erythropoietin (rh-ngEpo) expressed in E. coli was attached to polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains with different sizes and structures. The pharmacokinetic properties and in vivo potency of the PEGylated protein were investigated and comparisons were drawn between the conjugates and glycosylated recombinant Epo (rhEpo). The(More)
Bamboo, as one of the most important non-timber forest products and fastest-growing plants in the world, represents the only major lineage of grasses that is native to forests. Recent success on the first high-quality draft genome sequence of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) provides new insights on bamboo genetics and evolution. To further extend our(More)
BACKGROUND The moso bamboo, a large woody bamboo with the highest ecological, economic, and cultural value of all bamboos, has one of the highest growth speeds in the world. Genetic research into moso bamboo has been scarce, partly because of the lack of previous genomic resources. In the present study, for the first time, we performed de novo transcriptome(More)
A new approach that is superior to fixed-field IMRT in optimizing dosimetric and treatment-relevant parameters for patients undergoing whole-breast irradiation following breast-conserving surgery Abstract Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is considered to deliver a better dose distribution and to shorten treatment time. There is a lack of research(More)