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BACKGROUND Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is recognized as a frequent cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis. OBJECTIVES The aim of this review is to establish the efficacy of antibiotic therapy for C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD), to identify the most effective antibiotic treatment for CDAD in adults and to determine the need(More)
BACKGROUND PCR inhibition by nucleic acid extracts is a well known yet poorly described phenomenon. Inhibition assessment generally depends on the assumption that inhibitors affect all PCR reactions to the same extent; i.e. that the reaction of interest and the control reaction are equally susceptible to inhibition. To test this assumption we performed(More)
Background: Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is conventionally diagnosed by identifying Pneumocystis jirovecii in lower respiratory tract samples using cytochemical stains. Molecular diagnosis of PCP is potentially more sensitive. Methods: A study was undertaken to use an extensively optimised real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers designed to(More)
Pleural infection is associated with 20% mortality in the 80 000 new cases per year in the UK and USA. Streptococcus species cause w50% of community-acquired bacterial pleural infection. 1 Staphylococcus aureus and anaerobes are isolated in 8% and 20% of cases, respectively, and 12% of pleural infections yield polymicrobial cultures. However, even using(More)
One hundred consecutive neurologically normal women complaining of urinary incontinence underwent standing incremental retrograde medium-fill water cystometrograms on two different days followed by sitting and standing continuous retrograde medium-fill water urethrocystometry on a third visit between November 1987 and February 1989. Studies were done to(More)
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