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Informational masking ͑IM͒ has a long history and is currently receiving considerable attention. Nevertheless, there is no clear and generally accepted picture of how IM should be defined, and once defined, explained. In this letter, consideration is given to the problems of defining IM and specifying research that is needed to better understand and model(More)
Previous work has indicated that target-masker similarity, as well as stimulus uncertainty, influences the amount of informational masking that occurs in detection, discrimination, and recognition tasks. In each of five experiments reported in this paper, the detection threshold for a tonal target in random multitone maskers presented simultaneously with(More)
This study examined the role of focused attention along the spatial (azimuthal) dimension in a highly uncertain multitalker listening situation. The task of the listener was to identify key words from a target talker in the presence of two other talkers simultaneously uttering similar sentences. When the listener had no a priori knowledge about target(More)
The ability to understand speech in a multi-source environment containing informational masking may depend on the perceptual arrangement of signal and masker objects in space. In normal-hearing listeners, Arbogast et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 2086-2098 (2002)] found an 18-dB spatial release from a primarily informational masker, compared to 7 dB for a(More)
The effect of spatial separation of sources on the masking of a speech signal was investigated for three types of maskers, ranging from energetic to informational. Normal-hearing listeners performed a closed-set speech identification task in the presence of a masker at various signal-to-noise ratios. Stimuli were presented in a quiet sound field. The signal(More)
This study examined whether increasing the similarity between informational maskers and signals would increase the amount of masking obtained in a nonspeech pattern identification task. The signals were contiguous sequences of pure-tone bursts arranged in six narrow-band spectro-temporal patterns. The informational maskers were sequences of multitone bursts(More)
Measures of energetic and informational masking were obtained from 46 listeners with sensorineural hearing loss. The task was to detect the presence of a sequence of eight contiguous 60-ms bursts of a pure tone embedded in masker bursts that were played synchronously with the signal. The masker was either a sequence of Gaussian noise bursts (energetic(More)
Auditory spatial attention is one mechanism that may contribute to the ability to identify one sound source in a multi-source environment. The role of auditory spatial attention in a multi-source environment was investigated using the probe-signal method. The experiment took place in a quiet room with seven speakers arranged in a semi-circle in front of the(More)
Recent results have shown that listeners attending to the quieter of two speech signals in one ear (the target ear) are highly susceptible to interference from normal or time-reversed speech signals presented in the unattended ear. However, speech-shaped noise signals have little impact on the segregation of speech in the opposite ear. This suggests that(More)
Although informational masking is thought to reflect central mechanisms, the effects are generally much stronger when the target and masker are presented to the same ear than when they are presented to different ears. However, the results of a recent study by Brungart and Simpson [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 2985-2995 (2002)] indicated that a speech masker(More)