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Current ligand-receptor binding assays for G-protein coupled receptors cannot directly measure the system's dissociation constant, Kd, without purification of the receptor protein. Accurately measured Kd's are essential in the development of a molecular level understanding of ligand-receptor interactions critical in rational drug design. Here we report the(More)
Purpose – Many education for sustainable development (ESD) programs are designed to change attitudes and values toward the natural environment. However, psychological research indicates that several factors in addition to attitude influence behavior, including contextual support, social norms, action difficulty, and habitual behavior. Thus, if attitude(More)
Under physiological conditions, multicomponent biological membranes undergo structural changes which help define how the membrane functions. An understanding of biomembrane structure-function relations can be based on knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of pure phospholipid bilayers. Here, we have investigated phase transitions in(More)
This study reports the first direct, high-resolution physical and structural evidence of wall changes during hyphal tip growth, visualized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in Aspergillus nidulans. Images from AFM and cryo-scanning electron microscopy provided comparable information, but AFM was also able to image and physically probe living cells. AFM(More)
We review the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and force spectroscopy (FS) for probing the ultrastructure, chemistry, physical characteristics and motion of fungal cells. When first developed, SEM was used to image fixed/dehydrated/gold coated specimens, but here we describe more recent SEM developments as they apply(More)
Most fungal growth is localized to the tips of hyphae, however, early stages of spore germination and the growth of certain morphological mutant strains exhibit non-polarized expansion. We used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to document changes in Aspergillus nidulans wall surfaces during non-polarized growth: spore germination, and growth in a strain(More)
Atomic force microscopy was used to investigate the surface ultrastructure, adhesive properties and biofilm formation of Rhizobium leguminosarum and a ctpA mutant strain. The surface ultrastructure of wild-type R. leguminosarum consists of tightly packed surface subunits, whereas the ctpA mutant has much larger subunits with loose lateral packing. The ctpA(More)
The fungal wall mediates cell-environment interactions. Galactofuranose (Galf), the five-member ring form of galactose, has a relatively low abundance in Aspergillus walls yet is important for fungal growth and fitness. Aspergillus nidulans strains deleted for Galf biosynthesis enzymes UgeA (UDP-glucose-4-epimerase) and UgmA (UDP-galactopyranose mutase)(More)
The cDNA that encodes the human mu opioid receptor (hMOR) has been cloned and expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells using a nonlytic vector system. The coding sequence fused to the cleavable glycoprotein signal peptide gp 64, and a C-terminal histidine tag was placed under the transcriptional control of the Orgyia pseudotsugata multicapsid(More)
The chlorophenoxy herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is used extensively worldwide despite its known toxicity and our limited understanding of how it affects non-target organisms. Escherichia coli is a suitable model organism to investigate toxicity and adaptation mechanisms in bacteria exposed to xenobiotic chemicals. We developed a(More)