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Trauma-hemorrhage (T-H) is known to impair tissue perfusion, leading to tissue hypoxia, and thus affecting mitochondria, the organelles with the highest oxygen demand. In a model of T-H and prolonged hypotension without fluid resuscitation, administration of a small volume of 17beta-estradiol (E2), but not vehicle, prolonged the survival of rats for 3 h,(More)
The independent effects of exercise and weight loss on markers of inflammation (MOI) in obese individuals have not been clearly characterized. The objectives of this study were to: (i) identify the independent effects of exercise and weight loss on MOI and (ii) determine whether changes in MOI were associated with changes in fat distribution. Subjects were(More)
High respiratory quotient (RQ) has been associated with fat mass (FM) gain in some, but not all studies. Variability among results may reflect differences in the RQ variable measured (fasting vs. 24-h) or may be due to differences in control for factors that affect RQ, such as diet, energy balance, circulating insulin, and insulin sensitivity. The objective(More)
Whether the contribution of inflammation to risk for chronic metabolic disease differs with ethnicity is not known. The objective of this study was to determine: (i) whether ethnic differences exist in markers of inflammation and (ii) whether lower insulin sensitivity among African Americans vs. whites is due to greater inflammatory status. Subjects were(More)
Changes in markers of inflammation (MOI) and fat distribution with weight loss between African-American (AA) and white (W) women have yet to be characterized. The purpose of this study was to examine potential ethnic differences in MOI and regional fat distribution with weight loss, and identify the associations between these markers and changes in regional(More)
BACKGROUND Numerous studies have explored the etiologic or permissive role of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD1) in obesity and Type 2 diabetes, biochemical conditions often with concurrent hyperinsulinism. In contrast, there are limited data on the effect of insulin deficiency (i.e. Type 1 diabetes) on 11β-HSD1 or endoplasmic reticulum enzymes(More)
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