Tanuja Koppal

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Peroxynitrite (ONOO ) is a highly reactive, oxidizing anion with a half-life of <1 s that is formed by reaction of superoxide radical anion with nitric oxide. Several reports of ONOO--induced oxidation of lipids, proteins, DNA, sulfhydryls, and inactivation of key enzymes have appeared. ONOO- has also been implicated as playing a role in the pathology of(More)
Amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta), the major constituent in senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, is thought by many researchers to be central to neurotoxicity in AD brain. Increasing evidence from many laboratories indicates that AD brain is under oxidative stress, with strong evidence of protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, and peroxynitrite(More)
Given the increasing evidence of oxidative stress in AD brain and studies from different perspectives that appear to show a converging, central role for A beta in the pathogenesis and etiology of AD, insight into A beta-associated free radical oxidative stress will likely lead to a greater understanding of AD and, potentially, to better therapeutic(More)
15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-PGJ(2), a cyclopentenone derivative of PGD(2), was recently reported [Petrova et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96 (1999) 4668-4673] to suppress inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) production in microglia and mixed glial cultures stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We report here that in addition to suppressing iNOS(More)
Peroxynitrite, formed by the reaction between nitric oxide and superoxide, leads to the oxidation of proteins, lipids, and DNA, and nitrates thiols such as cysteine and glutathione, and amino acids like tyrosine. Previous in vitro studies have shown glutathione to be an efficient scavenger of peroxynitrite, protecting synaptosomal membranes from protein(More)
Ž . Alzheimer’s disease AD is an age-related, neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of brainŽ . resident neurofibrillary tangles, senile plaques SP , and w x loss of synapses 9 . The major component of SP is the Ž . aggregated form of amyloid b-peptide A b , which is w x 39–43 amino acids in length 19 . A b is associated with free radical(More)
Age-associated neurodegenerative disorders are becoming more prevalent as the mean age of the population increases in the United States over the next few decades. Both normal brain aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with oxidative stress. Our laboratory has used a wide variety of physical and biochemical methods to investigate free radical(More)
The astrocytic protein S100B stimulates neurite outgrowth and neuronal survival during CNS development. S100B can also stimulate glial activation, leading to induction of pro-inflammatory molecules like interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Although it is known that S100B's neurotrophic activity requires a(More)
Amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) is a key factor in the neurotoxicity of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent research has shown that Abeta-mediated neurotoxicity involves free radicals and that Abeta peptides can initiate multiple membrane alterations, including protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation, eventually leading to neuronal cell death. Research also has(More)
A high-throughput screening (HTS) assay for inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) production by activated microglia was developed and used to compare the relative activities of various anti-inflammatory compounds and cell-permeable protein kinase inhibitors. BV-2 cells, an immortalized line that retains phenotypic features of microglia and produces NO in response(More)