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Models of single cells, cell populations, and cultures can be most useful in organizing information in a comprehensive system description, as well as in optimizing and controlling actual production operations. Models discussed in this article are of various degrees of biological structure and mathematical complexity. The models are developed based on the(More)
A numerical study to investigate the steady laminar natural convection flow in a square cavity with uniformly and non-uniformly heated bottom wall, and adiabatic top wall maintaining constant temperature of cold vertical walls has been performed. A penalty finite element method with bi-quadratic rectangular elements has been used to solve the governing(More)
A theoretical analysis has been carried out to study efficient microwave heating of porous dielectrics. The heating effects are analyzed for two types of porous material: beef-air (b/a) and beef-oil (b/o) with and without ceramic supports (Al 2 O 3 and SiC). Three test cases for porosities (/) 0.3, 0.45 and 0.6 are considered. The maxima in average power(More)
A penalty finite element analysis with bi-quadratic elements is carried out to investigate the effects of uniform and non-uniform heating of inclined walls on natural convection flows within a isosceles triangular enclosure. Two cases of thermal boundary conditions are considered; case I: two inclined walls are uniformly heated while the bottom wall is cold(More)
Keywords: Penalty finite element method Natural convection Porous medium Trapezoidal cavity Various angles Uniform and non-uniform heating a b s t r a c t Simulations were carried out using penalty finite element analysis with bi-quadratic elements to investigate the influence of uniform and non-uniform heating of bottom wall within a trapezoidal enclosure(More)
Entropy generation plays a significant role in the overall efficiency of a given system, and a judicious choice of optimal boundary conditions can be made based on a knowledge of entropy generation. Five different boundary conditions are considered and their effect of the permeability of the porous medium, heat transfer regime (conduction and convection) on(More)
The heating of porous dielectrics, beef–air (b/a) and beef–oil (b/o), attached with ceramic, metallic or ceramic–metallic composite supports, has been studied analytically using microwaves. Three test porosities were considered, 0.3, 0.45 and 0.6. A preliminary understanding of enhanced heating and power absorption within the material was obtained from the(More)
A comprehensive numerical study on entropy generation during natural convection is studied in a square cavity subjected to a wide variety of thermal boundary conditions. Entropy generation terms involving thermal and velocity gradients are evaluated accurately based on the elemental basis set via the Galerkin finite element method. The thermal and fluid(More)