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Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inborn error of metabolism caused by mutations in phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). Over 500 disease-causing mutations have been identified in humans, most of which result in PAH protein misfolding and increased turnover in vivo. The use of pharmacological chaperones to stabilize or promote correct folding of mutant proteins(More)
The Pah(enu1/enu2) (ENU1/2) mouse is a heteroallelic orthologous model displaying blood phenylalanine (Phe) concentrations characteristic of mild hyperphenylalaninemia. ENU1/2 mice also have reduced liver phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) protein content (∼20% normal) and activity (∼2.5% normal). The mutant PAH protein is highly ubiquitinated, which is likely(More)
Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and the tryptophan hydroxylases (TPH1 and TPH2) are structurally and functionally related enzymes that share a number of ligands, such as amino acid substrates, pterin cofactors and inhibitors. We have recently identified four compounds (I-IV) with pharmacological chaperone effect for PAH and(More)
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters. Primary inherited defects in TH have been associated with l-DOPA responsive and non-responsive dystonia and infantile parkinsonism. In this study, we show that both the cofactor (6R)-l-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) and the feedback(More)
Tyrosine hydroxylase catalyses the hydroxylation of L-tyrosine to l-DOPA, the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of catecholamines. Mutations in the TH gene encoding tyrosine hydroxylase are associated with the autosomal recessive disorder tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency, which manifests phenotypes varying from infantile parkinsonism and DOPA-responsive(More)
Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for the aromatic amino acid hydroxylases, alkylglycerol monooxygenase, and nitric oxide synthases (NOS). Inborn errors of BH4 metabolism lead to severe insufficiency of brain monoamine neurotransmitters while augmentation of BH4 by supplementation or stimulation of its biosynthesis is thought to ameliorate(More)
Central nervous system (CNS) deficiencies of the monoamine neurotransmitters, dopamine and serotonin, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric dysfunction in phenylketonuria (PKU). Increased brain phenylalanine concentration likely competitively inhibits the activities of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), the(More)
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