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Latent variable mixture modeling represents a flexible approach to investigating population heterogeneity by sorting cases into latent but non-arbitrary subgroups that are more homogeneous. The purpose of this selective review is to provide a non-technical introduction to mixture modeling in a cross-sectional context. Latent class analysis is used to(More)
The authors studied the prevalence of stroke among suicide victims and whether prestroke depression had influence on suicide process. The authors used a comprehensive database of all suicides (N=2,283) committed in Northern Finland over a period of 15 years with information on all hospital-treated somatic and psychiatric disorders. Of the total suicide data(More)
BACKGROUND Suicidal behaviour, i.e. suicidal ideation and suicidal acts, as well as self-harm behaviour, are relatively common among adolescents. Depression and/or female gender seem to be risk factors for suicidal behaviour. However, the role of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in these behaviours is still unclear. AIM To study the effect(More)
AIM Set within the general population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, the Oulu Brain and Mind Study aims to explore the causes and pathogenesis of psychotic illness by following young people at risk for psychosis due to having a first-degree relative with psychotic illness or due to having experienced psychotic-like symptoms themselves. We report(More)
OBJECTIVE The default mode network (DMN) is active in the brain at rest and de-activated during cognitive tasks. Abnormal function in the DMN has been reported in people with schizophrenia but it is not known whether this applies also to people with a familial risk for psychosis (FR). We compared the activity of the DMN between FR participants and controls.(More)
This study is one of very few that has investigated the neuropsychological functioning of both familial and clinical high risk subjects for psychosis. Participants (N = 164) were members of the Northern Finland 1986 Birth Cohort in the following four groups: familial risk for psychosis (n = 62), clinical risk for psychosis (n = 20), psychosis (n = 13), and(More)
OBJECTIVE The central executive network controls and manages high-level cognitive functions. Abnormal activation in the central executive network has been related to psychosis and schizophrenia but it is not established how this applies to people with familial risk for psychosis (FR). METHODS We conducted a resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI) in 72 (29(More)
AIM Social withdrawal is among the first signs of the prodromal state of psychosis seen in clinical samples. The aim of this prospective study was to find out whether difficulty in making contact with others and social withdrawal precede first episode psychosis in the young general population. METHODS The members of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking (PEMCS) is associated with a higher probability of substance use in adolescence. We explore if externalizing behavior mediates this relationship, while controlling for a number of potential covariates of this mediation process. METHODS We used data obtained in two geographically distinct(More)
Birth cohort designs are useful in studying adult disease trajectories and outcomes, such as schizophrenia. We review the schizophrenia research performed in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC 1966), which includes 10,934 individuals living in Finland at 16 years of age who have been monitored since each mother's mid-pregnancy. By the age of 44,(More)