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The toxicological relevance of effects observed at molecular stage, which occur at dose levels well below classical no-observed adverse effect levels is currently subject to controversial scientific debate. While the importance of molecular effects for the identification of a mode of action or an adverse outcome pathway is undisputed, their impact for other(More)
Cultivated hepatocytes represent a well-established in vitro system. However, the applicability of hepatocytes in toxicogenomics is still controversially discussed. Recently, an in vivo/in vitro discrepancy has been described, whereby the non-genotoxic rat liver carcinogen methapyrilene alters the expression of the metabolizing genes SULT1A1 and ABAT, as(More)
This pedagogical review illustrates the differences between pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) measures, using insulin therapy as the primary example. The main conclusion is that PD parameters are of greater clinical significance for insulin therapy than PK parameters. The glucose-clamp technique, the optimal method for determining insulin PD, is(More)
Advances in omics techniques and molecular toxicology are necessary to provide new perspectives for regulatory toxicology. By the application of modern molecular techniques, more mechanistic information should be gained to support standard toxicity studies and to contribute to a reduction and refinement of animal experiments required for certain regulatory(More)
Through a Korean freechristian priest, who brought about an atmosphere of syncretism, a Korean patient was introduced by withdrawal of sleep into a shortterm state of artificial psychosis which lead to her attempting suicide. The therapeutic intervention based on the ideas of Rogers was successful in creating a basis of confidence between the patient and(More)
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