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B cells are important effectors and regulators of adaptive and innate immune responses, inflammation and autoimmunity, for instance in anti-NMDA-receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis. Thus, pharmacological modulation of B-cell function could be an effective regimen in therapeutic strategies. Since the non-competitive NMDAR antagonist memantine is clinically applied(More)
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are ligand-gated ion channels that play an important role in neuronal development, plasticity, and excitotoxicity. NMDAR antagonists are neuroprotective in animal models of neuronal diseases, and the NMDAR open-channel blocker memantine is used to treat Alzheimer's disease. In view of the clinical application of these(More)
Cigarette smoke contains numerous toxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic chemicals, stable and unstable free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) which cause biological oxidative damage. Continuous exposure to those chemicals leads to immense amount of damage to the human health either directly or indirectly. A hypothesis is advanced here that a possible(More)
Memantine is approved for the treatment of advanced Alzheimer´s disease (AD) and reduces glutamate-mediated neuronal excitotoxicity by antagonism of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. In the pathophysiology of AD immune responses deviate and infectious side effects are observed during memantine therapy. However, the particular effects of memantine on human T(More)
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