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Burning of fossil fuel, large scale clearing of forests and other human activities have changed global climate. Atmospheric concentration of radiatively active CO2, methane, nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbons has increased to cause global warming. In Australia temperature is projected to rise between 1 and 3°C by 2100. This review is the result of a(More)
Breeding new crop varieties with resistance to the biotic stresses that undermine crop yields is tantamount to increasing the amount and quality of biological capital in agriculture. However, the success of genes that confer resistance to pests induces a co-evolutionary response that depreciates the biological capital embodied in the crop, as pests evolve(More)
ABSTRACT There is no evidence that Pyrenophora semeniperda, the causal agent of leaf spotting in many annual and perennial grasses, currently occurs in Europe or Asia. However, there is potential phytosanitary concern that the importation of infected commodities could result in the introduction of this fungus into Eurasia, putting crops at risk and possibly(More)
Chilo partellus is a major crop pest in Asia and Africa, and has recently spread to the Mediterranean region. Knowledge of its potential distribution can inform biosecurity policies aimed at limiting its further spread and efforts to reduce its impact in areas that are already invaded. Three models of the potential distribution of this insect have been(More)
Diamondback moth or DBM is the major pest of Brassica vegetable production worldwide. Control has relied on insecticides, and DBM resistance to these compounds has evolved rapidly. We review and summarize data on DBM population dynamics across a large latitudinal gradient from southwest to northeast China: DBM is, on average, more common in southern(More)
Reproductive strategies of principal rain-pool midges, Chironomus imicola and Chironomus pulcher are investigated in field and laboratory. The two species are able to lay at least one full clutch without access to food in the adult stage. Since females are also capable of flying for extended periods without feeding, they carry out both adult functions (i.e.(More)
Species niche models play an important role in pest risk assessments, providing estimates of areas of suitability for establishment, persistence and impact, and sometimes the likely costs of biological invasions (FAO 2006). As has been demonstrated in the case of CBS, important and valuable phytosanitary decisions affecting international trade can hinge on(More)
Experiments were conducted in threc different ecozones in Kenya to measure the survival of unfed females of the ixodid tick Amblyomma variegatum under field conditions. Throughout the study, temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall were recorded every hour at each of the threc sites. Using a multiple linear regression procedure, a model was produced to(More)
The cassava mealybug is a clear and present threat to the food security and livelihoods of some of the world's most impoverished citizens. Niche models, such as CLIMEX, are useful tools to indicate where and when such threats may extend, and can assist with planning for biosecurity and the management of pest invasions. They can also contribute to(More)
The global distribution of citrus black spot (CBS) disease, caused by Phyllosticta citricarpa, is climatically constrained, which is evident from its occurrence in citrus growing areas with warm, summer rainfall and its absence from areas with cooler, Mediterranean-type winter rainfall. Various epidemiological and modelling studies have supported this(More)
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