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With the increasing success of islet transplantation, beta-cell replacement therapy has had renewed interest. To make such a therapy available to more than a few of the thousands of patients with diabetes, new sources of insulin-producing cells must become readily available. The most promising sources are stem cells, whether embryonic or adult stem cells.(More)
Fetal and neonatal beta cells have poor glucose-induced insulin secretion and only gain robust glucose responsiveness several weeks after birth. We hypothesise that this unresponsiveness is due to a generalised immaturity of the metabolic pathways normally found in beta cells rather than to a specific defect. Using laser-capture microdissection we excised(More)
Markers of beta-cell maturity would be useful in staging the differentiation of stem/progenitor cells to beta-cells whether in vivo or in vitro. We previously identified markers for newly formed beta-cells in regenerating rat pancreases after 90% partial pancreatectomy. To test the generality of these markers of newly formed beta-cells, we examined their(More)
BACKGROUND Metformin has been proffered as a therapy for adolescent obesity, although long-term controlled studies have not been reported. OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that 48 weeks of daily metformin hydrochloride extended release (XR) therapy will reduce body mass index (BMI) in obese adolescents, as compared with placebo. DESIGN Multicenter,(More)
OBJECTIVE To detect clinical correlates of cognitive abilities and white matter (WM) microstructural changes using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in young children with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Children, ages 3 to <10 years, with type 1 diabetes (n = 22) and age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects (n = 14) completed(More)
OBJECTIVE Nocturnal hypoglycemia can cause seizures and is a major impediment to tight glycemic control, especially in young children with type 1 diabetes. We conducted an in-home randomized trial to assess the efficacy and safety of a continuous glucose monitor-based overnight predictive low-glucose suspend (PLGS) system. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In(More)
The ability to lie still in an MRI scanner is essential for obtaining usable image data. To reduce motion, young children are often sedated, adding significant cost and risk. We assessed the feasibility of using a simple and affordable behavioral desensitization program to yield high-quality brain MRI scans in sedation-free children. 222 children (4–9.9(More)
The regenerative process in the pancreas is of particular interest, since diabetes, whether Type 1 or Type 2, results from an inadequate amount of insulin-producing beta-cells. Islet neogenesis, or the formation of new islets, seen as budding of hormone-positive cells from the ductal epithelium, has long been considered to be one of the mechanisms of normal(More)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus in the pediatric population is now a public health problem. It represents 8 to 45% of all diabetes reported among children and adolescents. Concurrently, childhood obesity has become an epidemic in the United States. Epidemiologic risk factors and diagnostic criteria have largely been established: The incidence of type 2 diabetes(More)
The aim of this study was to assess cognitive functioning in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and examine whether glycemic history influences cognitive function. Neuropsychological evaluation of 216 children (healthy controls, n = 72; T1D, n = 144) ages 4-10 years across five DirecNet sites. Cognitive domains included IQ, Executive Functions, Learning(More)