Tammy Szu-Yu Ho

Learn More
AnkyrinG (ankG) is highly enriched in neurons at axon initial segments (AISs) where it clusters Na(+) and K(+) channels and maintains neuronal polarity. How ankG becomes concentrated at the AIS is unknown. Here, we show that as neurons break symmetry, they assemble a distal axonal submembranous cytoskeleton, comprised of ankyrinB (ankB), αII-spectrin, and(More)
Neurons are highly polarized cells with functionally distinct axonal and somatodendritic compartments. Voltage-gated sodium channels Na(v)1.2 and Na(v)1.6 are highly enriched at axon initial segments (AISs) and nodes of Ranvier, where they are necessary for generation and propagation of action potentials. Previous studies using reporter proteins in(More)
Microglia are the brain's resident immune cells and function as the main defense against pathogens or injury. However, in the absence of disease, microglia have other functions in the normal brain. For example, previous studies showed that microglia contribute to circuit refinement and synaptic plasticity in the developing and adult brain, respectively.(More)
The scaffolding protein ankyrin-G is required for Na+ channel clustering at axon initial segments. It is also considered essential for Na+ channel clustering at nodes of Ranvier to facilitate fast and efficient action potential propagation. However, notwithstanding these widely accepted roles, we show here that ankyrin-G is dispensable for nodal Na+ channel(More)
Excitatory synapses are polarized structures that primarily reside on dendritic spines in the brain. The small GTPase Rac1 regulates the development and plasticity of synapses and spines by modulating actin dynamics. By restricting the Rac1-guanine nucleotide exchange factor Tiam1 to spines, the polarity protein Par3 promotes synapse development by(More)
The ability of cortisol to initiate DNA synthesis and division of density-inhibited 3T3 mouse fibroblasts appears to correlate with its glucocorticoid activity. Steroids which possess high glucocorticoid activity in vivo such as triamcinolone acetonide, dexamethasone, cortisol, corticosterone, and aldosterone stimulated both DNA synthesis and cell division.(More)
Brain inflammation and paraplegia can be induced by an additional intraperitoneal (i.p.) and intracerebral (i.c.) restimulation in B6 mice after standard immunization with MBP in Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) and Bordetella pertussis coadjuvant. Only the combination of i.p. MBP/FCA and i.c. MBP injection could induce clinical paraplegia; either one alone(More)
Previous studies have shown that initiation of proliferation of density-inhibited fibroblasts by fresh serum is accompanied by a rapid increase in phosphate uptake. This increase might be a key event in the initiation of DNA synthesis. The present studies examined this possibility. Mouse 3T3, secondary chick embryo, or human diploid foreskin cultures were(More)
Mutations in Frataxin (FXN) cause Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA), a recessive neurodegenerative disorder. Previous studies have proposed that loss of FXN causes mitochondrial dysfunction, which triggers elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and leads to the demise of neurons. Here we describe a ROS independent mechanism that contributes to neurodegeneration in(More)
Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in Frataxin (FXN). Loss of FXN causes impaired mitochondrial function and iron homeostasis. An elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was previously proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of FRDA. We recently showed that loss of frataxin(More)