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The relationship between lung liquid flow and fetal lung development has been studied at the cellular level using ultrastructural techniques. Continuous in utero tracheal ligation and drainage (over a period of 21-28 days) both result in malformations of the developing fetal lamb lung. Ligated lungs are larger, and drained lungs are smaller, than normal(More)
Maturation of sleep/wake patterns is one of the most important physiological developments during the first year of life. In this study, we aimed to compare the use of actigraphy and parental sleep diaries (SD) for recording the development of sleep/wake patterns longitudinally in term infants in their own home environments over the first 12 months of life.(More)
Our aim was to determine whether maternal cigarette smoking affects arousal and ventilatory responses to hypoxia in infants. Infants born to non-smoking (NS, n = 15) and smoking mothers (SM, n= 9) were studied at 2-5 weeks, 2-3 and 5-6 months. Ventilatory responses to 15% O(2) were determined preceding arousal. At each age and in both groups, infants(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate whether the prone sleeping position impaired arousal from sleep in healthy infants and whether this impairment was related to cardiorespiratory variables, temperature, or age. STUDY DESIGN Healthy term infants (n = 24) were studied with daytime polysomnography on 3 occasions: 2 to 3 weeks after birth, 2 to 3 months after birth,(More)
The incidence of sudden infant death syndrome has been found to be consistently higher in preterm and low birth weight infants than in infants born at term. Failure to arouse from sleep is one possible mechanism for sudden infant death syndrome. This study compared the arousal responses to nasal air-jet stimulation in a longitudinal study between groups of(More)
Failure to arouse from sleep is a possible mechanism leading to sudden infant death. Using a controlled pulsatile air jet applied alternately to the nostrils we have made multiple measures of arousal threshold both between and within sleep states. Infants (n = 22) born at term were studied at 2-3 wk postterm (mean age 13 d, range 9-17 d, study 1) and again(More)
Numerous studies have postulated a link between recent infection and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). In this study we contrasted arousal responses from sleep in infants on the day of discharge from hospital following an infection with those when fully recovered and also with well age-matched control infants. Thirteen term infants comprised the(More)
In the sheep, fetal lung development proceeds to a later stage of maturity than in smaller laboratory animals. Of the four stages in pulmonary development recognizable in this species - embryologic, pseudoglandular, canalicular, and aveolar - the latter three are described in the present study using histologic, morphometric, and ultrastructural techniques.(More)
We studied the effects of alterations in lung fluid volume on growth and maturation of the fetal lung. In a chronic fetal sheep preparation, right fetal lung volume was decreased by drainage of lung fluid while the volume of the left lung was expanded by mainstem bronchus ligation leading to lung fluid retention. After an experimental period of 25 d (from(More)
For some time it has been suggested that breathing movements are made "in utero" and recently measurements of tracheal pressure and lung liquid flow in chronic fetal preparations have led to the hypothesis that rapid changes in these parameters are the result of respiratory muscle activity. To test this hypothesis diaphragmatic electrical activity was(More)