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Recent years have seen intensive progress in measuring protein translation. However, the contributions of coding sequences to the efficiency of the process remain unclear. Here, we identify a universally conserved profile of translation efficiency along mRNAs computed based on adaptation between coding sequences and the tRNA pool. In this profile, the first(More)
Synonymous mutations do not alter the protein produced yet can have a significant effect on protein levels. The mechanisms by which this effect is achieved are controversial; although some previous studies have suggested that codon bias is the most important determinant of translation efficiency, a recent study suggested that mRNA folding at the beginning(More)
We describe a novel method for efficient reconstruction of phylogenetic trees, based on sequences of whole genomes or proteomes, whose lengths may greatly vary. The core of our method is a new measure of pairwise distances between sequences. This measure is based on computing the average lengths of maximum common substrings, which is intrinsically related(More)
Translation is a central process of life, and its regulation is crucial for cell growth. In this article, focusing on two model organisms, Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we study how three major local features of a gene's coding sequence (its adaptation to the tRNA pool, its amino acid charge, and its mRNA folding energy) affect its(More)
We describe the first large scale analysis of gene translation that is based on a model that takes into account the physical and dynamical nature of this process. The Ribosomal Flow Model (RFM) predicts fundamental features of the translation process, including translation rates, protein abundance levels, ribosomal densities and the relation between all(More)
Maximum likelihood (ML) is an increasingly popular optimality criterion for selecting evolutionary trees (Felsenstein, 1981). Finding optimal ML trees appears to be a very hard computational task, but for tractable cases, ML is the method of choice. In particular, algorithms and heuristics for ML take longer to run than algorithms and heuristics for the(More)
The possible effect of transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) concentrations on codons decoding time is a fundamental biomedical research question; however, due to a large number of variables affecting this process and the non-direct relation between them, a conclusive answer to this question has eluded so far researchers in the field. In this study, we perform a(More)
MOTIVATION Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is believed to be ubiquitous among bacteria, and plays a major role in their genome diversification as well as their ability to develop resistance to antibiotics. In light of its evolutionary significance and implications for human health, developing accurate and efficient methods for detecting and reconstructing(More)
One of the open questions in regulatory genomics is how the efficiency of gene translation is encoded in the coding sequence. Here we analyse recently generated measurements of folding energy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, showing that genes with high protein abundance tend to have strong mRNA folding (mF; R=0.68). mF strength also strongly correlates with(More)