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A synthetic 23-mer peptide (M2GlyR) with the amino acid sequence of the putative transmembrane segment M2 of the strychnine-binding alpha subunit of the inhibitory glycine receptor forms anion-selective channels in phospholipid bilayers. The most frequent events show single-channel conductances, gamma, of 25 pS and 49 pS in symmetric 0.5 M KCl with channel(More)
Various neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, stimulate adenylyl cyclase to produce cAMP, which regulates neuronal functions. Genetic disruption of the type 5 adenylyl cyclase isoform led to a major loss of adenylyl cyclase activity in a striatum-specific manner with a small increase in the expression of a few other adenylyl cyclase isoforms. D1 dopaminergic(More)
Cystic fibrosis (CF), an inherited disease characterized by defective epithelial Cl- transport, damages lungs via chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. Glutathione, a major antioxidant in the epithelial lung lining fluid, is decreased in the apical fluid of CF airway epithelia due to reduced glutathione efflux (Gao L, Kim KJ, Yankaskas JR, and Forman(More)
Hippocampal neurons, when pretreated with sublethal ischaemia, acquired tolerance to future treatments of normally lethal ischaemia. The level of transcription of the stress protein hsp70 was studied by in situ hybridization in control, ischaemic and tolerance-induced-ischaemic hippocampal neurons. Mongolian gerbils were subjected to single forebrain(More)
Changes of the xanthine and uric acid (UA) levels in rat forebrain following focal cerebral ischemia were studied by reversed-phase HPLC with electrochemical detection. Focal ischemia was induced by occluding the left middle cerebral artery in the rat. The xanthine level in the normal group was 11.50 nmol/g tissue. In the ischemic group, the xanthine(More)
A synthetic Cl(-) channel-forming peptide, C-K4-M2GlyR, applied to the apical membrane of human epithelial cell monolayers induces transepithelial Cl(-) and fluid secretion. The sequence of the core peptide, M2GlyR, corresponds to the second membrane-spanning region of the glycine receptor, a domain thought to line the pore of the ligand-gated Cl(-)(More)
To identify sequence-specific motifs associated with the formation of an ionic pore, we systematically evaluated the channel-forming activity of synthetic peptides with sequence of predicted transmembrane segments of the voltage-gated calcium channel. The amino acid sequence of voltage-gated, dihydropyridine (DHP)-sensitive calcium channels suggests the(More)
Nicotinic cholinergic receptors are membrane proteins composed of five subunits organized around a central aqueous pore. A pentameric channel protein, T5M2 delta, that emulates the presumed pore-forming structure of this receptor was generated by assembling five helix-forming peptide modules at the lysine epsilon-amino groups of the 11-residue template(More)
Uric acid (UA) in the rat brain was measured by HPLC with an electrochemical detector following focal ischemia. At 24 h after the operation, the UA level in the ischemic center was 105.47 +/- 8.39 nmol/g tissue, whereas it was 8.36 +/- 1.86 in the sham-operated group. Allopurinol, xanthine oxidase inhibitor, almost completely inhibited this UA accumulation.(More)
Monomeric peptides and four-helix bundle proteins with amino acid sequences of the predicted transmembrane segment M2 of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) were designed, synthesized, and used as probes to elucidate the pore-forming structure of the authentic AChR channel. Peptides M2 delta and M2 alpha 4 with sequences of M2 from muscle-like Torpedo(More)