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Disgust is a powerful human emotion that has been little studied until recently. Current theories do not coherently explain the purpose of disgust, nor why a wide range of stimuli can provoke a similar emotional response. Over 40 000 individuals completed a web-based survey using photo stimuli. Images of objects holding a potential disease threat were(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve the microbial quality of drinking water for preventing diarrhoea. DESIGN Systematic review. DATA SOURCES Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group's trials register, CENTRAL, Medline, Embase, LILACS; hand searching; and correspondence with experts and relevant organisations. STUDY SELECTION(More)
This work develops a new robust statistical framework for blind image denoising. Robust statistics addresses the problem of estimation when the idealized assumptions about a system are occasionally violated. The contaminating noise in an image is considered as a violation of the assumption of spatial coherence of the image intensities and is treated as an(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of handwashing on the risk of respiratory infection. METHODS We searched PubMed, CAB Abstracts, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane library for articles published before June 2004 in all languages. We had searched reference lists of all primary and review articles. Studies were included in the review if they reported(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the results obtained from 26 proxy indicators of domestic hand-washing practices with those obtained from direct, 'structured' observation of hand-washing in a sample of 387 households and to assess the potential of these indicators for use in the evaluation of hygiene promotion campaigns. METHODS Fieldwork in rural India between(More)
Each year more than 2 million children die from diarrhoeal diseases; the same number again die from acute respiratory infections. The simple hygiene behaviour of washing hands with soap represents an effective way of preventing the transmission of many of these infections. However, rates of handwashing across the globe are low, presenting a challenge for(More)
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, resulting from loss of tight junctions (TJ) and activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), is associated with edema formation in ischemic stroke. Cerebral edema develops in a phasic manner and consists of both vasogenic and cytotoxic components. Although it is contingent on several independent mechanisms, involving(More)
Lipid-rich atherosclerotic plaques are vulnerable, and their rupture can cause the formation of a platelet- and fibrin-rich thrombus leading to myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. Although the role of plaque-based tissue factor as stimulator of blood coagulation has been recognized, it is not known whether plaques can cause thrombus formation through(More)