Learn More
To investigate the role of ticks in TBE virus transmission, salivary gland extract (SGE) was derived from partially fed female Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor reticulatus and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks. Guinea-pigs were infested with uninfected R. appendiculatus nymphs and inoculated with a mixture of TBE virus and SGE or with virus alone. The number of(More)
Tick saliva (or salivary gland extract) potentiates the transmission of Thogoto (THO) virus to uninfected ticks feeding on a non-viraemic guinea-pig. This phenomenon has been named saliva activated transmission (SAT). To investigate the potential of different haematophagous arthropods to mediate SAT, guinea-pigs were infested with uninfected(More)
This study examined behavioral strategies for texture discrimination by echolocation in free-flying bats. Big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, were trained to discriminate a smooth 16 mm diameter object (S+) from a size-matched textured object (S-), both of which were tethered in random locations in a flight room. The bat's three-dimensional flight path was(More)
Virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes were generated in two strains of mice (BALB/c and CBA/Ca) against baculovirus recombinant proteins (minor and nonstructural) derived from bluetongue virus serotype 10. Immunization of mice with recombinant baculovirus insect cell extracts expressing the nonstructural protein NS2 (Bac-NS2) conferred partial protection(More)
Virus-specific, CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) were generated in two strains of mice (BALB/c, CBA/Ca) against bluetongue virus serotype 10 (BTV-10). Recombinant vaccinia viruses (VV) expressing the individual structural and non-structural proteins of BTV were used to infect syngeneic target cells. We found that in both BALB/c (H-2d) and CBA/Ca (H-2k)(More)
The need for comparative studies of iridoviruses to elucidate the relationships between them has been well appreciated. Sixteen iridoviruses, including type species from each of the four recognized genera of the Iridoviridae, were compared by restriction endonuclease characterization, hybridization to the major structural protein (MSP) gene of an(More)
Most of the data on oral infections of ticks with tick-borne encephalitis virus have been derived from experiments using animals infected by syringe inoculation. To mimic the natural conditions of virus transmission, tick-borne encephalitis virus-infected Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus) or Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neumann adults (donors) were cofed with(More)
The vectors of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) become infected by feeding on the viraemic blood of an infected animal. This theory is based on transmission studies involving artificial infection of vertebrate hosts by syringe inoculation. To reproduce natural conditions of virus transmission, infected and uninfected vectors (ticks) of tick-borne(More)