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This paper presents a computational scheme for compressible magnetohydrody-namics (MHD). The scheme is based on the same elements that make up many modern compressible gas dynamics codes: a high-resolution upwinding based on an approximate Riemann solver for MHD and limited reconstruction; an optimally smoothing multi-stage time-stepping scheme; and(More)
[1] The Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) provides a high-performance flexible framework for physics-based space weather simulations, as well as for various space physics applications. The SWMF integrates numerical models of the Solar Corona, Upper Atmosphere into a high-performance coupled model. The components can be represented with alternative(More)
[1] We present a three-dimensional (3-D) numerical ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model describing the time-dependent expulsion of a coronal mass ejection (CME) from the solar corona propagating to 1 astronomical unit (AU). The simulations are performed using the Block Adaptive Tree Solar-Wind Roe Upwind Scheme (BATS-R-US) code. We begin by developing a(More)
We present a new compressible MHD model for simulating the three-dimensional structure of the solar wind under steady state conditions. The initial potential magnetic field is reconstructed throughout the computational volume using the source surface method, in which the necessary boundary conditions for the field are provided by solar magnetogram data. The(More)
To model the interaction between the solar wind and the interstellar wind, magnetic fields must be included. Recently Opher et al. 2003 found that, by including the solar magnetic field in a 3D high resolution simulation using the University of Michigan BATS-R-US code, a jet-sheet structure forms beyond the solar wind Termination Shock. Here we present an(More)
Magnetic fields play an important (sometimes dominant) role in the evolution of gas clouds in the Galaxy, but the strength and orientation of the field in the interstellar medium near the heliosphere has been poorly constrained. Previous estimates of the field strength range from 1.8-2.5 microG and the field was thought to be parallel to the Galactic plane(More)
The Voyager spacecraft is now approaching the edge of the solar system. Near the boundary between the solar system and the interstellar medium we find that an unstable " jet-sheet " forms. The jet-sheet oscillates up and down due to a velocity shear instability. This result is due to a novel application of a state-of-art 3D Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code(More)
Molecular nitrogen (N2) is thought to have been the most abundant form of nitrogen in the protosolar nebula. It is the main N-bearing molecule in the atmospheres of Pluto and Triton and probably the main nitrogen reservoir from which the giant planets formed. Yet in comets, often considered the most primitive bodies in the solar system, N2 has not been(More)
The importance of comets for the origin of life on Earth has been advocated for many decades. Amino acids are key ingredients in chemistry, leading to life as we know it. Many primitive meteorites contain amino acids, and it is generally believed that these are formed by aqueous alterations. In the collector aerogel and foil samples of the Stardust mission(More)
[1] In late October and early November 2003 a series of some of the most powerful solar eruptions ever registered shook the heliosphere. These ''Halloween storms'' damaged 28 satellites, knocking two out of commission, diverted airplane routes, and caused power failures in Sweden, among other problems. This paper presents a 4-day end-to-end simulation of(More)