Tamara N. Fitzgerald

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Automated techniques for locating cardiac arrhythmia features are limited, and cardiologists generally rely on isochronal maps to infer patterns in the cardiac activation sequence during an ablation procedure. Velocity vector mapping has been proposed as an alternative method to study cardiac activation in both clinical and research environments. In(More)
BACKGROUND Mononuclear cells (MNC) increase neovascularization and ulcer healing after injection into an ischemic extremity. Circulating MNC are composed of lymphocytes (85%), monocytes (15%), and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC; 0.03%). We hypothesized that ischemic limbs secrete paracrine signals to recruit bone marrow-derived monocytes and EPC into the(More)
Vascular smooth muscle cells exhibit varied responses after vessel injury and surgical interventions, including phenotypic switching, migration, proliferation, protein synthesis, and apoptosis. Although the source of the smooth muscle cells that accumulate in the vascular wall is controversial, possibly reflecting migration from the adventitia, from the(More)
Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) may be directly exposed to blood flow after an endothelial-denuding injury. It is not known whether direct exposure of SMC to shear stress reduces SMC turnover and contributes to the low rate of restenosis after most vascular interventions. This study examines if laminar shear stress inhibits SMC proliferation or(More)
Cardiac surface conduction velocities could provide valuable information about the speed and angle of a propagating electrical wave front. It would be advantageous to develop catheter-based velocity mapping devices to improve the visualization of cardiac arrhythmias. However, catheter tip size is limited to ≤2.5 mm in diameter, restricting the number and(More)
Arteries and veins have been historically defined by the direction of blood flow and oxygen tension within the vessel, in addition to their functional, hemodynamic, and anatomical differences. It is now known that the molecular identity of these vessels is genetically predetermined, with specific molecular pathways activated during the development of(More)
Advances in endoscopy simulation are reviewed with emphasis on applications in teaching and skills assessment. Endoscopy simulation has only been realized recently in a computer-based fashion because of advances in technology, but several studies have been performed both to validate computer-based endoscopy simulators and to assess their potential role in(More)
OBJECTIVES Ephrin ligands and Eph receptors are signaling molecules that are differentially expressed on arteries and veins during development. We examined whether Eph-B4, a venous marker, and Ephrin-B2, an arterial marker, are regulated during vein graft adaptation in humans and aged rats. METHODS AND RESULTS Eph-B4 transcripts and immunodetectable(More)
BACKGROUND Pseudomembranous colitis has increased in incidence and severity over the past 10 years. Toxic megacolon is a rare but reported presentation of severe pseudomembranous colitis. This article reviews the reported cases of Clostridium difficile with toxic megacolon in the literature and introduces an additional case that underscores the importance(More)
BACKGROUND The safety and efficacy of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in stroke prevention has been well documented. But "high-risk" patients have traditionally been excluded from these studies and may be offered alternate therapies. We examined the safety of CEA in veterans, a medically high-risk group with multiple comorbidities. STUDY DESIGN The records(More)