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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) influence many physiological processes including host defense, hormone biosynthesis, fertilization, and cellular signaling. Increased ROS production (termed "oxidative stress") has been implicated in various pathologies, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. A major source for vascular(More)
RATIONALE Although Nox5 (Nox2 homolog) has been identified in the vasculature, its regulation and functional significance remain unclear. OBJECTIVES We sought to test whether vasoactive agents regulate Nox5 through Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent processes and whether Ca(2+)-sensitive Nox5, associated with Rac-1, generates superoxide (O(2)(*-)) and activates(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We examined the importance of NADPH-oxidase in reactive oxygen species production in cerebral arteries and its effect on vascular tone in vivo. Furthermore, we investigated whether chronic hypertension affects function or expression of this enzyme in cerebral vessels. METHODS Superoxide generation was detected in isolated rat(More)
Little is known about vascular MAPK regulation in response to mechanical strain. Whether mechanically-sensitive pathways are altered in hypertension is unclear. We examined effects of stretch and Ang II on activation of p38MAPK in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from WKY and SHR. The role of c-Src and redox-sensitive pathways in stretch-induced effects(More)
Diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis and diabetes are associated with vascular functional and structural changes including endothelial dysfunction, altered contractility and vascular remodeling. Cellular events underlying these processes involve changes in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) growth, apoptosis/anoikis, cell migration, inflammation,(More)
Hyperaldosteronism is associated with hypertension, cardiovascular fibrosis, and electrolyte disturbances, including hypomagnesemia. Mechanisms underlying aldosterone-mediated Mg(2+) changes are unclear, but the novel Mg(2+) transporters TRPM6 and TRPM7 may be important. We examined whether aldosterone influences renal TRPM6/7 and the TRPM7 downstream(More)
TRPM7 is a ubiquitously expressed cation channel with a fused alpha kinase domain. It is highly permeable to magnesium and calcium, and is negatively gated by intracellular Mg(2+) and Mg-ATP. Substrates for the TRPM7 kinase domain include annexinA1 and myosin IIA heavy chain, and there is evidence to suggest a functional interaction between the channel and(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide (O2*-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are known cerebral vasodilators. A major source of vascular ROS is the flavin-containing enzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-oxidase. Activation of NADPH-oxidase leads to dilatation of the basilar artery in vivo via production of H2O2, but the(More)
Reactive oxygen species including superoxide and hydrogen peroxide are important mediators in atherogenesis. We investigated the enzymatic source of vascular superoxide and its role in endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation during neointima formation. Silastic collars positioned around carotid arteries of rabbits for 14 days induced neointimal thickening.(More)
Inadequate magnesium intake and hypomagnesemia may contribute to chronic diseases, such as hypertension. The novel magnesium transporter TRPM7 is a critical regulator of magnesium homeostasis in vascular cells, but its role in pathophysiology is unclear. In a model of hypomagnesemia, we examined microvascular structure and function, TRPM7 expression, and(More)