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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) influence many physiological processes including host defense, hormone biosynthesis, fertilization, and cellular signaling. Increased ROS production (termed "oxidative stress") has been implicated in various pathologies, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. A major source for vascular(More)
Diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis and diabetes are associated with vascular functional and structural changes including endothelial dysfunction, altered contractility and vascular remodeling. Cellular events underlying these processes involve changes in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) growth, apoptosis/anoikis, cell migration, inflammation,(More)
RATIONALE Although Nox5 (Nox2 homolog) has been identified in the vasculature, its regulation and functional significance remain unclear. OBJECTIVES We sought to test whether vasoactive agents regulate Nox5 through Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent processes and whether Ca(2+)-sensitive Nox5, associated with Rac-1, generates superoxide (O(2)(*-)) and activates(More)
It is now clear that reactive oxygen species (ROS) can act as signalling molecules in the cerebral circulation under both physiological and pathological conditions. Some major products of superoxide (O(2)(.)(-)) metabolism, such as hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and hydroxyl radical (OH(.)), appear to be particularly good cerebral vasodilators and may,(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We examined the importance of NADPH-oxidase in reactive oxygen species production in cerebral arteries and its effect on vascular tone in vivo. Furthermore, we investigated whether chronic hypertension affects function or expression of this enzyme in cerebral vessels. METHODS Superoxide generation was detected in isolated rat(More)
Little is known about vascular MAPK regulation in response to mechanical strain. Whether mechanically-sensitive pathways are altered in hypertension is unclear. We examined effects of stretch and Ang II on activation of p38MAPK in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from WKY and SHR. The role of c-Src and redox-sensitive pathways in stretch-induced effects(More)
Hyperaldosteronism is associated with hypertension, cardiovascular fibrosis, and electrolyte disturbances, including hypomagnesemia. Mechanisms underlying aldosterone-mediated Mg(2+) changes are unclear, but the novel Mg(2+) transporters TRPM6 and TRPM7 may be important. We examined whether aldosterone influences renal TRPM6/7 and the TRPM7 downstream(More)
INTRODUCTION Magnesium (Mg(2+)) is essential for cellular growth and the maintenance of normal cellular processes. However, little is known about how maternal hypomagnesemia during pregnancy affects fetal growth and development. This study investigated the effects of maternal hypomagnesemia on the late gestation placenta and fetus, and postnatal outcomes(More)
Reactive oxygen species including superoxide and hydrogen peroxide are important mediators in atherogenesis. We investigated the enzymatic source of vascular superoxide and its role in endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation during neointima formation. Silastic collars positioned around carotid arteries of rabbits for 14 days induced neointimal thickening.(More)
TRPM7 is a ubiquitously expressed cation channel with a fused alpha kinase domain. It is highly permeable to magnesium and calcium, and is negatively gated by intracellular Mg(2+) and Mg-ATP. Substrates for the TRPM7 kinase domain include annexinA1 and myosin IIA heavy chain, and there is evidence to suggest a functional interaction between the channel and(More)