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In an effort to identify genes that may be important for drug-abuse liability, we mapped behavioral quantitative trait loci (bQTL) for sensitivity to the locomotor stimulant effect of methamphetamine (MA) using two mouse lines that were selectively bred for high MA-induced activity (HMACT) or low MA-induced activity (LMACT). We then examined gene expression(More)
Amphetamines have rewarding and aversive effects. Relative sensitivity to these effects may be a better predictor of vulnerability to addiction than sensitivity to one of these effects alone. We tested this hypothesis in a dose-response study in a second replicate set of mouse lines selectively bred for high vs. low methamphetamine (MA) drinking (MADR).(More)
The human dopamine D4 receptor (D4R) has received considerable attention because of its high affinity for the atypical antipsychotic clozapine and the unusually polymorphic nature of its gene. To clarify the in vivo role of the D4R, we produced and analyzed mutant mice (D4R-/-) lacking this protein. Although less active in open field tests, D4R-/- mice(More)
It is sometimes supposed that standardizing tests of mouse behavior will ensure similar results in different laboratories. We evaluated this supposition by conducting behavioral tests with identical apparatus and test protocols in independent laboratories. Eight genetic groups of mice, including equal numbers of males and females, were either bred locally(More)
Although dopaminergic transmission has been strongly implicated in alcohol self-administration, the involvement of specific dopamine receptor subtypes has not been well established. We studied the ethanol preference and sensitivity of D2-receptor-deficient mice to directly evaluate whether dopamine D2 receptors contribute to alcohol (ethanol) consumption.(More)
Improved prevention and treatment of drug addiction will require deeper understanding of genetic factors contributing to susceptibility to excessive drug use. Intravenous operant self-administration methods have greatly advanced understanding of behavioral traits related to addiction. However, these methods are not suitable for large-scale genetic(More)
The actions of corticotropin-releasing hormone (Crh), a mediator of endocrine and behavioural responses to stress, and the related hormone urocortin (Ucn) are coordinated by two receptors, Crhr1 (encoded by Crhr) and Crhr2. These receptors may exhibit distinct functions due to unique tissue distribution and pharmacology. Crhr-null mice have defined central(More)
There is increasing interest in determining the extent to which multiple characters related to drug sensitivity are influenced by common genes. The principal method for testing for the existence of such genetic correlations has been examination of pairs of mouse or rat lines selectively bred for sensitivity or resistance to a single behavioral effect of a(More)
Common features shared by addictive drugs have been difficult to identify. One ubiquitous effect of these drugs is psychomotor stimulation. Further, repeated exposure commonly results in sensitization to drug stimulant effects. This study evaluates sensitization to drugs from several drug classes in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J inbred strain mice. DBA/2J mice showed(More)
Sensitivity to the euphoric and locomotor-activating effects of drugs of abuse may contribute to risk for excessive use and addiction. Repeated administration of psychostimulants such as methamphetamine (MA) can result in neuroadaptive consequences that manifest behaviorally as a progressive escalation of locomotor activation, termed psychomotor(More)