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BACKGROUND The 2009 H1N1 pandemic highlighted the need to routinely monitor severe influenza, which lead to the establishment of sentinel hospital-based surveillance of severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) in several countries in Europe. The objective of this study is to describe characteristics of SARI patients and to explore risk factors for a(More)
During the 2007-08 influenza season, high levels of oseltamivir resistance were detected among influenza A(H1N1) viruses ina number of European countries. We used surveillance data to describe influenza A(H1N1) cases for whom antiviral resistance testing was performed. We pooled data from national studies to identify possible risk factors for infection with(More)
OBJECTIVES Although influenza-like illnesses (ILI) and acute respiratory illnesses (ARI) surveillance are well established in Europe, the comparability of intensity among countries and seasons remains an unresolved challenge. The objective is to compare the intensity of ILI and ARI in some European countries. DESIGN AND SETTING Weekly ILI and ARI(More)
Influenza activity in Europe during the 2001-02 influenza season was mild to moderate. Compared to historical data, the intensity was low in six countries, medium in eleven and high in one country (Spain). The dominant virus circulating in Europe was influenza A(H3N2). Two novel influenza virus strains were isolated during the 2001-02 season: influenza(More)
The 2004-2005 influenza season in Europe started in late December 2004 and the first influenza activity occurred in the west and southwest (Spain, United Kingdom and Ireland). Influenza activity then moved gradually east across Europe during January and early February 2005, and from late February until late March, most movement was south to north. The(More)
In this study, we present the multiple detection of respiratory viruses in infants during primary respiratory illness, investigate the sensitivity of nasal swabs and nasopharyngeal aspirates, and assess whether patient characteristics and viral load played a role in the sensitivity. Healthy infants were included at signs of first respiratory tract(More)
Influenza activity varied across Europe during the 2002-2003 season both in terms of the intensity of clinical activity and the circulating virus types/subtypes. Influenza B was generally predominant in the 'western' parts of Europe (Portugal, Spain, the United Kingdom and Ireland) and influenza A (H3N2) in the 'central' and 'eastern' areas (Germany, Italy,(More)
BACKGROUND Timely influenza surveillance is important to monitor influenza epidemics. OBJECTIVES (i) To calculate the epidemic threshold for influenza-like illness (ILI) and acute respiratory infections (ARI) in 19 countries, as well as the thresholds for different levels of intensity. (ii) To evaluate the performance of these thresholds. METHODS The(More)
BACKGROUND Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important viral agent causing severe respiratory disease in infants and children. In temperate climates, RSV activity typically peaks during winter. We have described the seasonal variation in RSV activity and investigated which meteorological variables are related to RSV outbreaks for different time(More)
Influenza activity in Europe during the winter 2005-2006 started late January - early February 2006 and first occurred in the Netherlands, France, Greece and England. Subsequently, countries were affected in a random pattern across Europe and the period of influenza activity lasted till the end of April. In contrast to the winter seasons in the period(More)