Tamara E. King

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Tonic pain has been difficult to demonstrate in animals. Because relief of pain is rewarding, analgesic agents that are not rewarding in the absence of pain should become rewarding only when there is ongoing pain. We used conditioned place preference to concomitantly determine the presence of tonic pain in rats and the efficacy of agents that relieve it.(More)
Although the opioids are the principal treatment options for moderate to severe pain, their use is also associated with the development of tolerance, defined as the progressive need for higher doses to achieve a constant analgesic effect. The mechanisms which underlie this phenomenon remain unclear. Recent studies revealed that cholecystokinin (CCK) is(More)
Dorsal root injury results in substantial and often irreversible loss of sensory functions as a result of the limited regenerative capacity of sensory axons and the inhibitory barriers that prevent both axonal entry into and regeneration in the spinal cord. Here, we describe previously unknown effects of the growth factor artemin after crush injury of the(More)
A puzzling observation is why peripheral nerve injury results in chronic pain in some, but not all, patients. We explored potential mechanisms that may prevent the expression of chronic pain. Sprague Dawley (SD) or Holtzman (HZ) rats showed no differences in baseline sensory thresholds or responses to inflammatory stimuli. However, spinal nerve ligation(More)
OBJECTIVE To develop and validate a model of cutaneous allodynia triggered by dural inflammation for pain associated with headaches. To explore neural mechanisms underlying cephalic and extracephalic allodynia. METHODS Inflammatory mediators (IM) were applied to the dura of unanesthetized rats via previously implanted cannulas, and sensory thresholds of(More)
Neuropathic pain is often "spontaneous" or "stimulus-independent." Such pain may result from spontaneous discharge in primary afferent nociceptors in injured peripheral nerves. However, whether axotomized primary afferent nociceptors give rise to pain is unclear. The rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) mediates the negative affective component of(More)
Metastatic bone cancer causes severe pain that is primarily treated with opioids. A model of bone cancer pain in which the progression of cancer pain and bone destruction is tightly controlled was used to evaluate the effects of sustained morphine treatment. In cancer-treated mice, morphine enhanced, rather than diminished, spontaneous, and evoked pain;(More)
The opioid analgesics, commonly exemplified by morphine, represent the best option for the treatment of severe pain and for the management of chronic pain states, of both malignant and nonmalignant origin. It is well recognized that the prolonged use of opioids is associated with a requirement for ever-increasing doses in order to maintain pain relief at an(More)
AIMS Cannabinoid CB(2) agonists have been shown to alleviate behavioral signs of inflammatory and neuropathic pain in animal models. AM1241, a CB(2) agonist, does not demonstrate central nervous system side effects seen with CB(1) agonists such as hypothermia and catalepsy. Metastatic bone cancer causes severe pain in patients and is treated with analgesics(More)
UNLABELLED Antidepressants such as tricyclic antidepressants have become used to treat a variety of chronic pain conditions. However, the side effects are dose-limiting in the treatment of chronic pain. Milnacipran is a norepinephrine/serotonin reuptake inhibitor that does not have the severe side effects associated with traditional tricyclic(More)