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Although the opioids are the principal treatment options for moderate to severe pain, their use is also associated with the development of tolerance, defined as the progressive need for higher doses to achieve a constant analgesic effect. The mechanisms which underlie this phenomenon remain unclear. Recent studies revealed that cholecystokinin (CCK) is(More)
Tonic pain has been difficult to demonstrate in animals. Because relief of pain is rewarding, analgesic agents that are not rewarding in the absence of pain should become rewarding only when there is ongoing pain. We used conditioned place preference to concomitantly determine the presence of tonic pain in rats and the efficacy of agents that relieve it.(More)
Relief of pain is rewarding. Using a model of experimental postsurgical pain we show that blockade of afferent input from the injury with local anesthetic elicits conditioned place preference, activates ventral tegmental dopaminergic cells, and increases dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. Importantly, place preference is associated with increased(More)
The opioid analgesics, commonly exemplified by morphine, represent the best option for the treatment of severe pain and for the management of chronic pain states, of both malignant and nonmalignant origin. It is well recognized that the prolonged use of opioids is associated with a requirement for ever-increasing doses in order to maintain pain relief at an(More)
Dorsal root injury results in substantial and often irreversible loss of sensory functions as a result of the limited regenerative capacity of sensory axons and the inhibitory barriers that prevent both axonal entry into and regeneration in the spinal cord. Here, we describe previously unknown effects of the growth factor artemin after crush injury of the(More)
AIMS Cannabinoid CB(2) agonists have been shown to alleviate behavioral signs of inflammatory and neuropathic pain in animal models. AM1241, a CB(2) agonist, does not demonstrate central nervous system side effects seen with CB(1) agonists such as hypothermia and catalepsy. Metastatic bone cancer causes severe pain in patients and is treated with analgesics(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Pain is a main complaint of patients with pancreatitis. We hypothesized that such pain is mediated through ascending pathways via the nucleus gracilis (NG) and is dependent on descending facilitatory influences from the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM). METHODS A rat model of persistent experimental pancreatitis was used. After(More)
Neuropathic pain is often "spontaneous" or "stimulus-independent." Such pain may result from spontaneous discharge in primary afferent nociceptors in injured peripheral nerves. However, whether axotomized primary afferent nociceptors give rise to pain is unclear. The rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) mediates the negative affective component of(More)
OBJECTIVE To develop and validate a model of cutaneous allodynia triggered by dural inflammation for pain associated with headaches. To explore neural mechanisms underlying cephalic and extracephalic allodynia. METHODS Inflammatory mediators (IM) were applied to the dura of unanesthetized rats via previously implanted cannulas, and sensory thresholds of(More)
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic pain condition characterized by pain during joint use as well as pain at rest (i.e., ongoing pain). Although injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) into the intra-articular space of the rodent knee is a well established model of OA pain that is characterized by changes in weight bearing and hypersensitivity to tactile and(More)