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When induced to differentiate, growth-arrested 3T3-L1 preadipocytes synchronously reenter the cell cycle and undergo mitotic clonal expansion (MCE) followed by expression of genes that produce the adipocyte phenotype. The preadipocytes traverse the G(1)S checkpoint synchronously as evidenced by the expressionactivation of cdk2-cyclin-EA, turnover of(More)
CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)beta, C/EBPalpha, and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)gamma act in a cascade where C/EBPbeta activates expression of C/EBPalpha and PPARgamma, which then function as pleiotropic activators of genes that produce the adipocyte phenotype. When growth-arrested 3T3-L1 preadipocytes are induced to(More)
Hormonal induction of growth-arrested 3T3-L1 preadipocytes triggers a signaling cascade that culminates in adipogenesis. CCAATenhancer-binding protein (CEBP)beta is expressed immediately but gains DNA-binding activity only after a long lag as the cells synchronously begin mitotic clonal expansion (MCE). After MCE, a process required for adipogenesis,(More)
Cell culture models have been developed to study commitment and subsequent differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 commits mesenchymal stem cells to the adipose lineage. Other factors, including Wnt signaling, cell density, and cell shape, play a role in lineage commitment. Following commitment to the adipose lineage,(More)
The forkhead factor Foxo1 (or FKHR) was identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma-interacting protein. Foxo1 antagonized PPARgamma activity and vice versa indicating that these transcription factors functionally interact in a reciprocal antagonistic manner. One mechanism by which Foxo1 antagonizes(More)
The increase of adipose tissue mass associated with obesity is due in part to an increase in the number of adipocytes. This hyperplasia results from recruitment of pluripotent stem cells present in the vascular stroma of adipose tissue. A model cell culture system has been developed that recapitulates this process both ex vivo and in vivo. After treatment(More)
Human Serum paraoxonase 1 (HuPON1) is an enzyme that has been shown to hydrolyze a variety of chemicals including the nerve agent VX. While wildtype HuPON1 does not exhibit sufficient activity against VX to be used as an in vivo countermeasure, it has been suggested that increasing HuPON1's organophosphorous hydrolase activity by one or two orders of(More)
Organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents are potent toxins that inhibit cholinesterases and produce a rapid and lethal cholinergic crisis. Development of protein-based therapeutics is being pursued with the goal of preventing nerve agent toxicity and protecting against the long-term side effects of these agents. The drug-metabolizing enzyme human carboxylesterase(More)
Human serum paraoxonase-1 (HuPON1) has the capacity to hydrolyze aryl esters, lactones, oxidized phospholipids, and organophosphorus (OP) compounds. HuPON1 and bacterially expressed chimeric recombinant PON1s (G2E6 and G3C9) differ by multiple amino acids, none of which are in the putative enzyme active site. To address the importance of these amino acid(More)
Human serum paraoxonase-1 (HuPON1) is difficult to either purify from plasma or functionally express in high yield from recombinant sources. Here, we describe the characterization of functional HuPON1 expressed and purified from Trichoplusia ni (T. ni) larvae infected with an orally active form of baculovirus. SDS-PAGE and anti-HuPON1 Western blot analyses(More)