Tamara C Hornik

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Microglia activated through Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 or -4 can cause neuronal death by phagocytosing otherwise-viable neurons-a form of cell death called "phagoptosis." UDP release from neurons has been shown to provoke microglial phagocytosis of neurons via microglial P2Y6 receptors, but whether inhibition of this process affects neuronal survival is(More)
Rotenone, a common pesticide and inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I, induces microglial activation and loss of dopaminergic neurons in models of Parkinson's disease. However, the mechanisms of rotenone neurotoxicity are still poorly defined. Here, we used primary neuronal/glial cultures prepared from rat cerebella to investigate the contribution of(More)
Microglia are brain macrophages, which can undergo multinucleation to give rise to multinucleated giant cells that accumulate with ageing and some brain pathologies. However, the origin, regulation and function of multinucleate microglia remain unclear. We found that inflammatory stimuli, including lipopolysaccharide, amyloid β, α-synuclein, tumour necrosis(More)
Some apoptotic processes, such as phosphatidylserine exposure, are potentially reversible and do not necessarily lead to cell death. However, phosphatidylserine exposure can induce phagocytosis of a cell, resulting in cell death by phagocytosis: phagoptosis. Phagoptosis of neurons by microglia might contribute to neuropathology, whereas phagoptosis of(More)
Activated microglia can phagocytose dying, stressed, or excess neurons and synapses via the phagocytic receptor Mer tyrosine kinase (MerTK). Galectin-3 (Gal-3) can cross-link surface glycoproteins by binding galactose residues that are normally hidden below terminal sialic acid residues. Gal-3 was recently reported to opsonize cells via activating MerTK. We(More)
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