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A novel virus, ATV, of the hyperthermophilic archaeal genus Acidianus has the unique property of undergoing a major morphological development outside of, and independently of, the host cell. Virions are extruded from host cells as lemon-shaped tail-less particles, after which they develop long tails at each pointed end, at temperatures close to that of the(More)
In Xenopus laevis, beta-catenin-mediated dorsal axis formation can be suppressed by overexpression of the HMG-box transcription factor XSOX3. Mutational analysis indicates that this effect is due not to the binding of XSOX3 to beta-catenin nor to its competition with beta-catenin-regulated TCF-type transcription factors for specific DNA binding sites, but(More)
B1-type SOXs (SOXs 1, 2, and 3) are the most evolutionarily conserved subgroup of the SOX transcription factor family. To study their maternal functions, we used the affinity-purified antibody antiSOX3c, which inhibits the binding of Xenopus SOX3 to target DNA sequences [Development. 130(2003)5609]. The antibody also cross-reacts with zebrafish embryos.(More)
In zebrafish, the divergent F-type SOX casanova acts downstream of Nodal signaling to specify endoderm. While no casanova orthologs have been identified in tetrapods, the F-type SOX, SOX7, is supplied maternally in Xenopus (Fawcett and Klymkowsky, 2004. GER 4, 29). Subsequent RT-PCR and section-based in situ hybridization analyses indicate that SOX7 mRNA is(More)
Four novel filamentous viruses with double-stranded DNA genomes, namely, Acidianus filamentous virus 3 (AFV3), AFV6, AFV7, and AFV8, have been characterized from the hyperthermophilic archaeal genus Acidianus, and they are assigned to the Betalipothrixvirus genus of the family Lipothrixviridae. The structures of the approximately 2-mum-long virions are(More)
Nature has established two mechanistically and structurally unrelated families of thymidylate synthases that produce de novo thymidylate or dTMP, an essential DNA precursor. Representatives of the alternative flavin-dependent thymidylate synthase family, ThyX, are found in a large number of microbial genomes, but are absent in humans. We have exploited the(More)
Early in vertebrate development, endodermal signals act on mesoderm to induce cardiogenesis. The F-type SOXs SOX7 and SOX18beta are expressed in the cardiogenic region of the early Xenopus embryo. Injection of RNAs encoding SOX7 or SOX18beta, but not the related F-type SOX, SOX17, leads to the nodal-dependent expression of markers of cardiogenesis in animal(More)
At present very little is known about interactions between extrachromosomal genetic elements in Archaea. Here we describe an Acidianus strain which carries naturally a novel 28 kb conjugative plasmid-like element, pAH1, and also serves as a laboratory host for lipothrixvirus AFV1. In an attempt to establish a system for studying plasmid-virus interactions(More)
N(6)-threonylcarbamoyladenosine (t(6)A) is a modified nucleotide found in all transfer RNAs (tRNAs) decoding codons starting with adenosine. Its role is to facilitate codon-anticodon pairing and to prevent frameshifting during protein synthesis. Genetic studies demonstrated that two universal proteins, Kae1/YgjD and Sua5/YrdC, are necessary for t(6)A(More)
Threonylcarbamoyladenosine (t(6)A) is a universal modification located in the anticodon stem-loop of tRNAs. In yeast, both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial tRNAs are modified. The cytoplasmic t(6)A synthesis pathway was elucidated and requires Sua5p, Kae1p, and four other KEOPS complex proteins. Recent in vitro work suggested that the mitochondrial t(6)A(More)