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Gene targeting was used to create a null allele at the epidermal growth factor receptor locus (Egfr). The phenotype was dependent on genetic background. EGFR deficiency on a CF-1 background resulted in peri-implantation death due to degeneration of the inner cell mass. On a 129/Sv background, homozygous mutants died at mid-gestation due to placental(More)
Altered skin wound healing is a common cause of morbidity and mortality among diabetic patients. However, the molecular mechanisms whereby diabetes alters skin physiology have not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the relative roles of hyperglycemia, insulin, and IGF-I, all of which are abnormal in diabetes, in primary murine skin(More)
Impaired wound healing of skin is one of the most serious complications of diabetes. However, the pathogenesis of this process is not known, and it is unclear whether impaired insulin signaling could directly affect skin physiology. To elucidate the role of insulin in skin, we studied skin insulin receptor (IR) null mice. The morphology of the skin of(More)
Insulin stimulates glucose uptake into skeletal muscle tissue mainly through the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to the plasma membrane. The precise mechanism involved in this process is presently unknown. In the cascade of events leading to insulin-induced glucose transport, insulin activates specific protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms. In this(More)
Retinoids are powerful regulators of epidermal cell growth and differentiation and are widely used in the prevention and treatment of skin disorders and cancers in humans. Since many of the effects of retinoids on cell growth and differentiation are mediated by nuclear retinoid receptors (RARs and RXRs), we were interested in determining RAR and RXR gene(More)
Retinoic acid receptor transcripts (RARalpha and RARgamma) are decreased in benign mouse epidermal tumors relative to normal skin and are almost absent in carcinomas. In this report, the expression of RARalpha and RARgamma proteins was analyzed by immunoblotting in benign skin tumors induced by two different promotion protocols designed to yield tumors at(More)
Although tuberculosis (TB) screening of immigrants has been conducted for over 50 yr in many industrialized countries, its cost- effectiveness has never been evaluated. We prospectively compared the yield and cost-effectiveness of two immigrant TB screening programs, using close-contact investigation and passive case detection. Study subjects included all(More)
Enhanced expression of the alpha 6 beta 4 integrin complex has been linked to malignant progression in mouse skin carcinogenesis. To determine if alpha 6 beta 4 expression can predict risk for malignant conversion among populations of benign skin tumors, we analyzed the distribution of alpha 6 beta 4 and other markers of progression in papillomas at high(More)
Interaction of cells with the basement membrane is important for cell proliferation and differentiation. Disruption of the basement membrane is an early event during progression of benign tumors to cancer. Using the techniques of immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence, we show that cell-matrix interactions via the cell surface integrin receptors alpha(More)