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Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used in combined functional selectivity and retinotopic mapping tests to reveal object-related visual areas in the human occipital lobe. Subjects were tested with right, left, up, or down hemivisual field stimuli which were composed of images of natural objects (faces, animals, man-made objects) or highly scrambled(More)
To investigate the relationship between perceptual awareness and brain activity, we measured both recognition performance and fMRI signal from object-related areas in human cortex while images were presented briefly using a masking protocol. Our results suggest that recognition performance is correlated with selective activation in object areas. Selective(More)
The extent to which primary visual cues such as motion or luminance are segregated in different cortical areas is a subject of controversy. To address this issue, we examined cortical activation in the human occipital lobe using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while subjects performed a fixed visual task, object recognition, using three(More)
We used a new method to assess how people can infer unobserved causal structure from patterns of observed events. Participants were taught to draw causal graphs, and then shown a pattern of associations and interventions on a novel causal system. Given minimal training and no feedback, participants in Experiment 1 used causal graph notation to spontaneously(More)
Recent work has shown that preschool-aged children and adults understand freedom of choice regardless of culture, but that adults across cultures differ in perceiving social obligations as constraints on action. To investigate the development of these cultural differences and universalities, we interviewed school-aged children (4-11) in Nepal and the United(More)
Prosociality emerges early in ontogeny, but the mechanisms driving its early-emergence are not well understood. We propose that the experience of choice is tied to the expression of children's prosocial behavior. In Experiment 1, preschoolers shared with a puppet by either making a Costly Choice (giving a resource they could have kept for themselves),(More)
Infants' imitation is influenced by causal and intentional cues. Here we examine whether imitation is influenced by prior social expectations. Infants (mean age = 27 months) first played one of three games either: 1) copying the experimenters' gestures, 2) establishing and working toward a shared goal or 3) a non-interactive control. They then participated(More)
Research has shown that after observing a sequence of object-related actions, young children sometimes imitate the goal-directed aspects of the actions only, but other times faithfully imitate all aspects of the actions. In this study we explore whether this mixture of goal-directed and faithful imitation is based in part on individual differences between(More)
Young children's social learning is a topic of great interest. Here, we examined preschoolers' (M = 52.44 months, SD = 9.7 months) help-seeking as a social information gathering activity that may optimize and support children's opportunities for learning. In a toy assembly task, we assessed each child's competency at assembling toys and the difficulty of(More)
Young children's collaboration is a topic of great interest, yet what causes children to initiate collaboration in some circumstances but not others is unclear. In this research, we analyzed preschoolers' collaboration as an information gathering activity in a toy assembly activity. We independently assessed children's competency at a similar building task(More)