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We report a novel technique for almost complete replacement of the recipient germline with donor germ cells in the chicken. Busulfan solubilized in a sustained-release emulsion was injected into the yolk of fertile eggs before incubation. A dose of 100 microg was found to provide the best outcome in terms of reducing the number of endogenous primordial germ(More)
A genetic switch determines whether the indifferent gonad develops into an ovary or a testis. In adult females of many avian species, the left ovary is functional while the right one regresses. In the embryo, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) mediate biological effects in many organ developments but their roles in avian sex determination and gonadal(More)
The unique accessibility of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) during early development provides the opportunity to combine the reproduction of live animals with genetic conservation. Male and female Gifujidori fowl (GJ) PGCs were collected from the blood of early embryos, and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen for >6 months until transfer. Manipulated GJ(More)
This study was conducted to investigate the role of a sperm-borne compound in oocyte activation in special reference to the time when oocyte activation is required by testicular cells during spermatogenesis in quail. First, effects of a microinjection of quail sperm extract (SE) and quail phospholipase Czeta (PLCzeta) cRNA into quail oocytes were assessed(More)
The aim of the present study was to improve the efficiency of endogenous primordial germ cell (PGC) depletion and to increase the ratio of donor PGCs in the gonads of recipient chicken embryos. A sustained-release emulsion was prepared by emulsifying equal amounts of Ca(2+)- and Mg(2+)-free phosphate-buffered saline containing 10% busulfan solubilised in(More)
A novel method was developed to isolate chick primordial germ cells (PGCs) from circulating embryonic blood. This is a very simple and rapid method for the isolation of circulating PGCs (cPGCs) using an ammonium chloride-potassium (ACK) buffer for lysis of the red blood cells. The PGCs were purified as in vitro culture proceeded. Most of the initial red(More)
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has been successfully used to produce offspring in several mammalian species including humans. However, ICSI has not been successful in birds because of the size of the egg and difficulty in mimicking the physiological polyspermy that takes place during normal fertilization. Microsurgical injection of 20 or more(More)
This study was conducted to establish a new method of avian transgenesis by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). First, we evaluated the fertilization ability of quail oocytes after microinjection of Triton X-100 (TX-100)-treated quail sperm with PLCZ cRNA. The quail oocytes were cultured for 24 h, and blastoderm development was examined by histological(More)
FKBPs are cytosolic receptors for the immunosuppressive drug FK506. FKBP12.6 and FKBP12 associate with cardiac and skeletal muscle isoforms of ryanodine receptors and thereby regulate intracellular Ca(2+) release. The amino acid sequences of FKBP12.6 and FKBP12 are highly conserved among mammals and chicken. The expression profiles of FKBP12.6 and FKBP12(More)
We reported previously testis-mediated germline chimera production and characterization of germline stem cell-like cells from chicken testes. The present study aimed to establish an in vitro system for culture of quail spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) for practical applications in germline preservation and transgenesis. Testicular cells (TCs) from juvenile(More)