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During the nucleolar maturation of eukaryotic ribosomal RNAs, many selected uridines are converted into pseudouridine by a thus far undefined mechanism. The nucleolus contains a large number of small RNAs (snoRNAs) that share two conserved sequence elements, box H and ACA. In this study, we demonstrate that site-specific pseudouridylation of rRNAs relies on(More)
The nucleus contains a large number of metabolically stable, 60-450-nt-long small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) that exist in the form of ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) (Yu et al., 1999). Each snRNP is composed of an snRNA and a set of associated RNP proteins. Based on their function and intranuclear localization, mammalian snRNPs can be classified into three major(More)
Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein reverse transcriptase that uses its RNA component as a template for synthesis of telomeric DNA repeats at the ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes. Here, fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrates that in HeLa cancer cells, human telomerase RNA (hTR) accumulates in the nucleoplasmic Cajal bodies (CBs). Localization of(More)
Pseudouridine, the most abundant modified nucleoside in RNA, is synthesized by posttranscriptional isomerization of uridines. In eukaryotic RNAs, site-specific synthesis of pseudouridines is directed primarily by box H/ACA guide RNAs. In this study, we have identified 61 novel putative pseudouridylation guide RNAs by construction and characterization of a(More)
The positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), a complex of Cdk9 and cyclin T1/T2, stimulates transcription by phosphorylating RNA polymerase II. The 7SK small nuclear RNA, in cooperation with HEXIM1 protein, functions as a general polymerase II transcription regulator by sequestering P-TEFb into a large kinase-inactive 7SK/HEXIM1/P-TEFb complex.(More)
Eukaryotic cells contain many fibrillarin-associated small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) that possess long complementarities to mature rRNAs. Characterization of 21 novel antisense snoRNAs from human cells followed by genetic depletion and reconstitution studies on yeast U24 snoRNA provides evidence that this class of snoRNAs is required for site-specific(More)
Theta frequency oscillation of the septo-hippocampal system has been considered as a prominent activity associated with cognitive function and affective processes. It is well documented that anxiolytic drugs diminish septo-hippocampal oscillatory Theta activity contributing to their either therapeutic or unwanted side effects. In the present experiments we(More)