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During the nucleolar maturation of eukaryotic ribosomal RNAs, many selected uridines are converted into pseudouridine by a thus far undefined mechanism. The nucleolus contains a large number of small RNAs (snoRNAs) that share two conserved sequence elements, box H and ACA. In this study, we demonstrate that site-specific pseudouridylation of rRNAs relies on(More)
Eukaryotic cells contain a large number of small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs). A major family of snoRNAs features a consensus ACA motif positioned 3 nucleotides from the 3' end of the RNA. In this study we have characterized nine novel human ACA snoRNAs (U64-U72). Structural probing of U64 RNA followed by systematic computer modeling of all known box ACA(More)
Cajal (coiled) bodies are conserved subnuclear organelles that are present in the nucleoplasm of both animal and plant cells. Although Cajal bodies were first described nearly 100 years ago, their function has remained largely speculative. Here, we describe a novel class of human small nuclear RNAs that localize specifically to Cajal bodies. The small Cajal(More)
The nucleus contains a large number of metabolically stable, 60-450-nt-long small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) that exist in the form of ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) (Yu et al., 1999). Each snRNP is composed of an snRNA and a set of associated RNP proteins. Based on their function and intranuclear localization, mammalian snRNPs can be classified into three major(More)
In eukaryotes, two distinct classes of small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), namely the fibrillarin-associated box C/D snoRNAs and the Gar1p-associated box H/ACA snoRNAs, direct the site-specific 2'-O-ribose methylation and pseudouridylation of ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), respectively. We have identified a novel evolutionarily conserved snoRNA, called U85, which(More)
Biogenesis of functional spliceosomal small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) includes the post-transcriptional covalent modification of numerous internal nucleotides. We have recently demonstrated that synthesis of 2'-O-methylated nucleotides and pseudouridines in the RNA polymerase II-synthesized Sm snRNAs is directed by sequence-specific guide RNAs. Here, we provide(More)
Eukaryotic cells contain many fibrillarin-associated small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) that possess long complementarities to mature rRNAs. Characterization of 21 novel antisense snoRNAs from human cells followed by genetic depletion and reconstitution studies on yeast U24 snoRNA provides evidence that this class of snoRNAs is required for site-specific(More)
Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that counteracts replicative telomere erosion by adding telomeric sequence repeats onto chromosome ends. Despite its well-established role in telomere synthesis, telomerase has not yet been detected at telomeres. The RNA component of human telomerase (hTR) resides in the nucleoplasmic Cajal bodies (CBs) of interphase(More)
Mammalian MRP (for mitochondrial RNA processing) RNA, also known as 7-2 RNA, is a nuclear encoded small RNA which has been reported to function in two different cellular compartments: in the mitochondria and in the nucleus. The ribonucleoprotein particle which contains the 7-2/MRP RNA, called RNase MRP, has ribonucleolytic activity and shares some(More)