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The nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is activated by oxidative stress and plays a significant role in postischemic brain injury. We assessed the contribution of PARP activation to the blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and edema formation after ischemia-reperfusion. In male Wistar rats, global cerebral ischemia was achieved by occluding(More)
1,3-Dihydro-1-[2-hydroxy-5-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2H-benzimidazol-2-one (NS1619), a potent activator of the large conductance Ca2+ activated potassium (BK(Ca)) channel, has been demonstrated to induce preconditioning (PC) in the heart. The aim of our study was to test the delayed PC effect of NS1619 in rat cortical neuronal cultures(More)
The objectives of our present experiments were to determine whether the BK(Ca) channel agonist NS1619 is able to induce immediate preconditioning in cultured rat cortical neurons and to elucidate the role of BK(Ca) channels in the initiation of immediate preconditioning. NS1619 depolarized mitochondria and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation,(More)
Previously, we have shown that the selective mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium (mitoK(ATP)) channel opener BMS-191095 (BMS) induces neuronal preconditioning (PC); however, the exact mechanism of BMS-induced neuroprotection remains unclear. In this study, we have identified key components of the cascade resulting in delayed neuronal PC with BMS using(More)
Preconditioning represents the condition where transient exposure of cells to an initiating event leads to protection against subsequent, potentially lethal stimuli. Recent studies have established that mitochondrial-centered mechanisms are important mediators in promoting development of the preconditioning response. However, many details concerning these(More)
Cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (CMVECs) have recently been implicated as targets of excitotoxic injury by l-glutamate (l-glut) or N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) in vitro. However, high levels of l-glut do not compromise the function of the blood-brain barrier in vivo. We sought to determine whether primary cultures of rat and piglet CMVECs or(More)
Activation of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium (mitoK(ATP)) channels protects the brain against ischemic or chemical challenge. Unfortunately, the prototype mitoK(ATP) channel opener, diazoxide, has mitoK(ATP) channel-independent actions. We examined the effects of BMS-191095, a novel selective mitoK(ATP) channel opener, on transient ischemia induced(More)
We tested whether rosuvastatin (RST) protected against excitotoxic neuronal cell death in rat primary cortical neuronal cultures. L-glutamate (200 microM, 1h) reduced neuronal viability (% of naive controls, mean+/-SEM, n=8-32, *p<0.05) from 100+/-2% to 60+/-1%*, but pretreatment with RST (0.5 microM, 3 days) increased survival to 88+/-2%*. RST-induced(More)
The mitochondrion is involved in energy generation, apoptosis regulation, and calcium homeostasis. Mutations in genes involved in mitochondrial processes often result in a severe phenotype or embryonic lethality, making the study of mitochondrial involvement in aging, neurodegeneration, or reproduction challenging. Using a transgenic insertional mutagenesis(More)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of rosuvastatin (RSV), a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, on transient, focal cerebral ischemia in C57BL/6J ob/ob mice with insulin resistance (IR). Male ob/ob, lean, or wild-type (WT) mice were treated with RSV (10 mg/kg per day, i.p.) or vehicle for 3 days.(More)