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This paper reviews current knowledge on the role of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), in maternal and term infant nutrition as well as infant development. Consensus recommendations and practice guidelines for health-care providers supported by the World Association(More)
Infant formulae are increasingly supplemented with probiotics, prebiotics, or synbiotics despite uncertainties regarding their efficacy. The present article, developed by the Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, systematically reviews published evidence related to the safety and health(More)
Beneficial effects of perinatal DHA supply on later neurological development have been reported. We assessed the effects of maternal DHA supplementation on the neurological development of their children. Healthy pregnant women from Spain, Germany, and Hungary were randomly assigned to a dietary supplement consisting of either fish oil (FO) (500 mg/d DHA +(More)
BACKGROUND In our previous study, the negative correlation found between plasma insulin levels and plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations suggested that decreased antioxidant vitamin levels and reduced antioxidant capacity might be a characteristic feature of obese children with multimetabolic syndrome (MMS). OBJECTIVE To investigate lipid-soluble(More)
This position paper on complementary feeding summarizes evidence for health effects of complementary foods. It focuses on healthy infants in Europe. After reviewing current knowledge and practices, we have formulated these conclusions: Exclusive or full breast-feeding for about 6 months is a desirable goal. Complementary feeding (ie, solid foods and liquids(More)
This medical position article by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition summarises the current status of breast-feeding practice, the present knowledge on the composition of human milk, advisable duration of exclusive and partial breast-feeding, growth of the breast-fed infant, health benefits associated with(More)
In recent years, reports suggesting a resurgence of vitamin D deficiency in the Western world, combined with various proposed health benefits for vitamin D supplementation, have resulted in increased interest from health care professionals, the media, and the public. The aim of this position paper is to summarise the published data on vitamin D intake and(More)
Prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) and trans-fatty acids may affect neurodevelopment. In healthy term children, we determined relationships between relative fatty acid contents of umbilical arteries and veins and neurodevelopment at 18 mo. The study comprised a mixed group of 317 breast-fed, formula-fed, and LCPUFA formula-fed(More)
Fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids (PL), triglycerides (TG), and sterol esters (STE) was determined by high-resolution capillary gas-liquid chromatography in 22 obese children (age: 13.7 +/- 1.4 y, body weight relative to normal weight for height: 170 +/- 24%, mean +/- SD) and compared with data obtained in 25 age-matched healthy controls. There(More)
The fatty acid (FA) composition of plasma phospholipids, triglycerides and cholesterol esters (STE) was determined by high resolution capillary gas-chromatography in 115 apparently healthy subjects from birth to young adulthood. After birth, percentage contributions of linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid increased, whereas long-chain polyunsaturated fatty(More)