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Simulated Annealing, a widespread technique for combinatorial optimisation, is employed to find the optimal candidate in a candidate set, as defined in Optimality Theory (OT). Being a heuristic technique, simulated annealing does not guarantee to return the correct solution, and yet, some result is always returned within a constant time. Similarly to(More)
The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is known as the cholinergic part of the reticular activating system (RAS) and it plays an important role in transitions of slow-wave sleep to REM sleep and wakefulness. Although both exogenous and endocannabinoids affect sleep, the mechanism of endocannabinoid neuromodulation has not been characterized at cellular level in(More)
OBJECTIVE In diabetes mellitus several cardiac electrophysiological parameters are known to be affected. In rodent experimental diabetes models changes in these parameters were reported, but no such data are available in other mammalian species including the dog. The present study was designed to analyse the effects of experimental type 1 diabetes on(More)
This Review highlights selected frontiers in pruritus research and focuses on recently attained insights into the neurophysiological, neuroimmunological, and neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying skin-derived itch (pruritogenic pruritus), which may affect future antipruritic strategies. Special attention is paid to newly identified itch-specific neuronal(More)
Specific [3H]resiniferatoxin (RTX) binding detects the vanilloid receptor type I (VR1). In the present study we demonstrate specific, high-affinity, saturable [3H]RTX binding in various areas of monkey brain not known to be innervated by primary afferent neurons as well as in spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion neurons of the same origin. Detailed(More)
Itch (pruritus) is a sensory phenomenon characterized by a (usually) negative affective component and the initiation of a special behavioral act, i.e. scratching. Older studies predominantly have interpreted itch as a type of pain. Recent neurophysiological findings, however, have provided compelling evidence that itch (although it indeed has intimate(More)
BACKGROUND Tramadol is an effective analgesic substance widely used in medical practice. Its therapeutic action have been mainly attributed to the activation of mu-opioid receptors as well as to the inhibition of neurotransmitter reuptake mechanisms and various voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels of the nociceptive system. As transient receptor potential(More)
The vanilloid receptor (VR1) is a central integrator molecule of nociceptive stimuli. In this study, we have measured the effects of various neurotrophins (nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin-3, and -4) on recombinant rat VR1-mediated intracellular calcium rise in response to capsaicin in VR1/C6 cells. Our results clearly(More)
Cannabinoid receptors (CB) are expressed throughout human skin epithelium. CB1 activation inhibits human hair growth and decreases proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes. Since psoriasis is a chronic hyperproliferative, inflammatory skin disease, it is conceivable that the therapeutic modulation of CB signaling, which can inhibit both proliferation and(More)