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Simulated Annealing, a widespread technique for combinatorial optimisation, is employed to find the optimal candidate in a candidate set, as defined in Optimality Theory (OT). Being a heuristic technique, simulated annealing does not guarantee to return the correct solution, and yet, some result is always returned within a constant time. Similarly to(More)
The newly discovered endocannabinoid system (ECS; comprising the endogenous lipid mediators endocannabinoids present in virtually all tissues, their G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors, biosynthetic pathways and metabolizing enzymes) has been implicated in multiple regulatory functions both in health and disease. Recent studies have intriguingly(More)
The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is known as the cholinergic part of the reticular activating system (RAS) and it plays an important role in transitions of slow-wave sleep to REM sleep and wakefulness. Although both exogenous and endocannabinoids affect sleep, the mechanism of endocannabinoid neuromodulation has not been characterized at cellular level in(More)
RasGRP3 mediates the activation of the Ras signaling pathway that is present in many human cancers. Here, we explored the involvement of RasGRP3 in the formation and maintenance of the prostate cancer phenotype. RasGRP3 expression was elevated in multiple human prostate tumor tissue samples and in the human androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines(More)
OBJECTIVE In diabetes mellitus several cardiac electrophysiological parameters are known to be affected. In rodent experimental diabetes models changes in these parameters were reported, but no such data are available in other mammalian species including the dog. The present study was designed to analyse the effects of experimental type 1 diabetes on(More)
Optimality Theory (OT) requires an algorithm optimising the Harmony function on the set of candidates. Simulated annealing, a well-known heuris-tic technique for combinatorial optimisation, has been argued to be an empirically adequate solution to this problem. In order to generalise simulated annealing for a non-real valued Harmony function, two(More)
This Review highlights selected frontiers in pruritus research and focuses on recently attained insights into the neurophysiological, neuroimmunological, and neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying skin-derived itch (pruritogenic pruritus), which may affect future antipruritic strategies. Special attention is paid to newly identified itch-specific neuronal(More)
Specific [3H]resiniferatoxin (RTX) binding detects the vanilloid receptor type I (VR1). In the present study we demonstrate specific, high-affinity, saturable [3H]RTX binding in various areas of monkey brain not known to be innervated by primary afferent neurons as well as in spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion neurons of the same origin. Detailed(More)
Itch (pruritus) is a sensory phenomenon characterized by a (usually) negative affective component and the initiation of a special behavioral act, i.e. scratching. Older studies predominantly have interpreted itch as a type of pain. Recent neurophysiological findings, however, have provided compelling evidence that itch (although it indeed has intimate(More)
Pruritus (itch) can be defined as an unpleasant cutaneous sensation associated with the immediate desire to scratch. Recent findings have identified potential classes of endogenous "itch mediators" and establish a modern concept for the pathophysiology of pruritus. First, there in no universal peripheral itch mediator, but disease-specific sets of involved(More)