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Optimal T cell activation requires signaling through the TCR and CD28 costimulatory receptor. CD28 costimulation is believed to set the threshold for T cell activation. Recently, Cbl-b, a ubiquitin ligase, has been shown to negatively regulate CD28-dependent T cell activation. In this report, we show that CD28 costimulation selectively induces greater(More)
Proteoglycan (PG)-induced arthritis (PGIA) is a novel autoimmune murine model for rheumatoid arthritis induced by immunization with cartilage PG in susceptible BALB/c mice. In this model, hyperproliferation of peripheral CD4(+) T cells has been observed in vitro with Ag stimulation, suggesting the breakdown of peripheral tolerance. Activation-induced cell(More)
Accumulating evidence suggests that regulatory T cells play a crucial role in preventing autoimmunity. Recently, a naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ T-cell subset that is anergic and also suppressive has been shown to suppress autoimmunity in several animal models. We used proteoglycan-induced arthritis (PGIA) as a study model to investigate the role of the(More)
BACKGROUND Proteoglycan aggrecan (PG)-induced arthritis (PGIA) is the only systemic autoimmune murine model which affects the axial skeleton, but no studies have been performed characterising the progression of spine involvement. OBJECTIVES To follow pathological events in experimental spondylitis, and underline its clinical, radiographic, and(More)
Activation-induced cell death (AICD) of T cells is one of the major mechanisms of peripheral tolerance. The regulation of AICD by IL-4 is poorly understood. In this study, we report that AICD in IL-4-deficient T cells is significantly reduced compared with that in wild-type T cells. This impaired AICD correlates with the failure to induce degradation of(More)
BACKGROUND The aim of the study was to examine the reactivity of peripheral human leukocytes to various metal ions prior and following hip replacement in order to investigate implant-induced metal sensitivity. METHODS Three patient groups were set up: (1) individuals without implants and no history of metal allergy (7 cases), (2) individuals without(More)
5'Mercaptouridine-5'-diphosphate (hs5UDP) has been synthesized and investigated as a substrate of the polynucleotide phosphorylase of Micrococcus luteus. While hs5UDP is not utilized alone, it can be copolymerized with UDP; however, unusually for this enzyme, the ratio of 5'mercaptouridylate vs. uridylate residues in the polynucleotide product (MPU) is(More)
BACKGROUND Focal cartilage lesions in the knee joint have limited capacity to heal. Current animal experiments show that incisions of the deep zone of a cartilage allograft allow acceptable integration for the graft. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES We performed this clinical study to determine (1) if the multiply incised cartilage graft is surgically applicable for(More)
The effect of partially thiolated polycytidylic acid (MPC) on the colony-forming ability of the progenitor cells (CFUC) of RF/Un leukemic mice was investigated using the plasma clot method in order to study the mode of action of the modified polynucleotide. The results showed that MPC inhibited the CFUC in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Once a(More)
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