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Given a changing visual environment, and the limited capacity of visual working memory (VWM), the contents of VWM must be in constant flux. Using a change detection task, the authors show that VWM is subject to obligatory updating in the face of new information. Change detection performance is enhanced when the item that may change is retrospectively cued 1(More)
When tracking moving objects in space humans usually attend to the objects' spatial locations and update this information over time. To what extent do surface features assist attentive tracking? In this study we asked participants to track identical or uniquely colored objects. Tracking was enhanced when objects were unique in color. The benefit was greater(More)
To what degree can attentive tracking of objects' motion benefit from increased distinctiveness in the objects' surface features? To address this question, we asked observers to track 4 moving digits among a total of 8 moving digits. By varying the distinctiveness of the digits' color and identity, we found that tracking performance improved when the 8(More)
Visual search is often facilitated when the search display occasionally repeats, revealing a contextual-cueing effect. According to the associative-learning account, contextual cueing arises from associating the display configuration with the target location. However, recent findings emphasizing the importance of local context near the target have given(More)
This study investigates the fate of information that was previously stored in visual working memory but that is no longer needed. Previous research has found inconsistent results, with some showing effective release of irrelevant information and others showing proactive interference. Using change detection tasks of colors or shapes, we show that(More)
Failure to detect changes to salient visual input across a brief interval has popularized the use of change detection, a paradigm that plays important roles in recent studies of visual perception, short-term memory, and consciousness. Much research has focused on the nature of visual representation for the pre- and postchange displays, yet little is known(More)
BACKGROUND Tracking moving objects in space is important for the maintenance of spatiotemporal continuity in everyday visual tasks. In the laboratory, this ability is tested using the Multiple Object Tracking (MOT) task, where participants track a subset of moving objects with attention over an extended period of time. The ability to track multiple objects(More)
How much attention is needed to produce implicit learning? Previous studies have found inconsistent results, with some implicit learning tasks requiring virtually no attention while others rely on attention. In this study we examine the degree of attentional dependency in implicit learning of repeated visual search context. Observers searched for a target(More)
How does responding to an object affect explicit memory for visual information? The close theoretical relationship between action and perception suggests that items that require a response should be better remembered than items that require no response. However, conclusive evidence for this claim is lacking, as semantic coherence, category size, and trial(More)
Temporal selection poses unique challenges to the perceptual system. Selection is needed to protect goal-relevant stimuli from interference from new sensory input. In addition, contextual information that occurs at the same time as goal-relevant stimuli may be critical for learning. Using fMRI, we characterized how visual cortical regions respond to the(More)