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Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a technology that allows for non-invasive modulation of the excitability and function of discrete brain cortical areas. TMS uses alternating magnetic fields to induce electric currents in cortical tissue. In psychiatry, TMS has been studied primarily as a potential treatment for major depression. Most studies(More)
Biological psychiatry has a long history of using somatic therapies to treat neuropsychiatric illnesses and to understand brain function. These methods have included neurosurgery, electroconvulsive therapy, and, most recently, transcranial magnetic stimulation. Fourteen years ago researchers discovered that intermittent electrical stimulation of the vagus(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is effective in the management of treatment-resistant epilepsy. Open-trial evidence suggests that VNS has clinically significant antidepressant effects in some individuals who experience treatment-resistant major depressive episodes. However, limited information regarding the effects of VNS on neurocognitive(More)
BACKGROUND A considerable percentage of patients with bipolar disorder do not respond or do not tolerate conventional treatment. Cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors have been suggested to possess depressogenic and antimanic properties. METHODS We report a case series of treatment-resistant bipolar patients (n = 11) to whom we administered the ChE inhibitor(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the safety and efficacy of sertraline augmentation therapy in the treatment of behavioral manifestations of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in outpatients treated with donepezil. METHODS AND MATERIALS Patients with probable or possible AD, and a Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) total score >5 (with a severity score > or =2 in at least one(More)
There is a long-standing belief that elderly patients take longer to respond to antidepressant treatment than younger patients, and thus, require longer trials to respond or remit. This has led to the question: What is the minimum duration of antidepressant treatment necessary to identify responders in older depressed adults? A 12-week duration was tested(More)
OBJECTIVE The goal of this study was to examine the effects of aging on neuropsychological functions in bipolar and unipolar major depression. BACKGROUND Earlier studies suggested that neurocognitive deficits in mood disorder patients correlate with duration and severity of illness and also that bipolar disorder has a more virulent course than unipolar(More)
This study is the first to directly compare the relative effects of duloxetine, escitalopram, and sertraline on the functional activity of the drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 2D6 enzyme as assessed by changes in the pharmacokinetics of the cytochrome P450 2D6 model substrate drug, metoprolol. Single-dose pharmacokinetics of metoprolol were measured before(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate gender differences in the clinical presentation of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and response to sertraline treatment. METHODS Adult outpatients who met DSM-IV criteria for GAD with a minimum Hamilton rating scale for anxiety (HAM-A) total score>or=18 were randomized to 12 weeks of double-blind treatment with flexible doses(More)
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) enhance neuronal transmission by increasing the availability of acetylcholine in muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. This effect is believed to be responsible for the beneficial and protective effects of ChEIs on cognition in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Effects of ChEIs on mood and behavior have also been(More)