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BACKGROUND Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a depth-resolved, noninvasive, non-destructive imaging modality, the use of which has yet to be fully realized in developmental biology. METHODS AND RESULTS We visualized embryonic chick hearts at looping stages using an OCT system with a 22 micro m axial and 27 micro m lateral resolution and an acquisition(More)
PURPOSE To compare the number of pulmonary nodules detected at helical low- and standard-dose computed tomography (CT) and to investigate the diagnostic value of low-dose CT with a radiation exposure equivalent to that used at chest radiography. MATERIALS AND METHODS Two radiologists recorded pulmonary nodules at standard-dose (250 or 100 mA, pitch of 1;(More)
Isolated noncompaction of the left ventricular myocardium (INVM), first described in 1984, is an unclassified cardiomyopathy and is assumed to occur as an arrest of the compaction process during the normal development of the heart. Between weeks 5 to 8 of human fetal development, the ventricular myocardium undergoes gradual compaction with transformation of(More)
BACKGROUND Congenital conotruncal malformations frequently involve dextroposed aorta. The pathogenesis of dextroposed aorta is not known but is thought to be due to abnormal looping and/or wedging of the outflow tract during early heart development. We examined the stage of cardiac looping in an experimental model of dextroposed aorta to determine the(More)
Cardiac neural crest ablation results in primary myocardial dysfunction and failure of the secondary heart field to add the definitive myocardium to the cardiac outflow tract. The current study was undertaken to understand the changes in myocardial characteristics in the heart tube, including volume, proliferation, and cell size when the myocardium from the(More)
Previous work demonstrated the power of three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) to follow complicated morphologic development in the embryonic cardiovascular system. In this study we describe a new dual-contrast method for specimen preparation that combines perfusion fixation and immersion in fixative with macro- and small molecular(More)
The heart is the first organ to function in vertebrate embryos. The human heart, for example, starts beating around the 21st embryonic day. During the initial phase of its pumping action, the embryonic heart is seen as a pulsating blood vessel that is built up by (1) an inner endothelial tube lacking valves, (2) a middle layer of extracellular matrix, and(More)
High-resolution in vivo imaging of higher vertebrate embryos over short or long time periods under constant physiological conditions is a technically challenging task for researchers working on cardiovascular development. In chick embryos, for example, various studies have shown that without appropriate maintenance of temperature, as one of the main(More)
The classical Hamburger and Hamilton (HH) paper demonstrates the normal stages of development of the chick embryo that have been extensively used as the basis of understanding normal and abnormal development of the chick embryo heart. Careful examination of the series of images published in this seminal paper indicates that the cardiac images of stage 16(More)
C ardiac neural crest (CNC) ablation in embryonic chicks leads to conotruncal anomalies of the heart as a result of altered cardiac looping. Altered looping results from failure of the myocardium from the secondary heart field to be added to the outflow tract. Various imaging techniques have been applied to visualize embryonic heart development. However,(More)