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O-Phosphoserine (Sep), the most abundant phosphoamino acid in the eukaryotic phosphoproteome, is not encoded in the genetic code, but synthesized posttranslationally. Here, we present an engineered system for specific cotranslational Sep incorporation (directed by UAG) into any desired position in a protein by an Escherichia coli strain that harbors a(More)
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) has a positive single-stranded RNA genome, and translation starts within the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) in a cap-independent manner. The IRES is well conserved among HCV subtypes and has a unique structure consisting of four domains. We used an in vitro selection procedure to isolate RNA aptamers capable of binding to(More)
Pyrrolysine (Pyl), the 22nd natural amino acid, is genetically encoded by UAG and inserted into proteins by the unique suppressor tRNA(Pyl) (ref. 1). The Methanosarcinaceae produce Pyl and express Pyl-containing methyltransferases that allow growth on methylamines. Homologous methyltransferases and the Pyl biosynthetic and coding machinery are also found in(More)
Lipids are key components in the viral life cycle that affect host-pathogen interactions. In this study, we investigated the effect of HCV infection on sphingolipid metabolism, especially on endogenous SM levels, and the relationship between HCV replication and endogenous SM molecular species. We demonstrated that HCV induces the expression of the genes(More)
Peptide bond formation at the peptidyl transferase center on the ribosome is a crucial phenomenon in life systems. In this study, we conceptually propose possible roles of the RNA tetraplex as a scaffold for two aminoacyl minihelices that enable peptide bond formation. The basic rationale of this model is that "parallel" complementary templates composed of(More)
Stereochemical assignment of amino acids and corresponding codons or anticodons has not been successful so far. Here, we focused on proline and GGG (anticodon of tRNAPro) and investigated their mutual interaction. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed that guanosine nucleotides (GG, GGG) formed G-quartet structures. The structures were destroyed by(More)
The Bacillus subtilis glycine riboswitch comprises tandem glycine-binding aptamers and a putative terminator stem followed by the gcvT operon. Gene expression is regulated via the sensing of glycine. However, we found that the riboswitch behaves in a "glycine-independent" manner in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and ethylene glycol. The effect is(More)
The R3C ligase ribozyme is an artificial ligase ribozyme produced by modification of the ribozyme that lacks cytidine. Here, we attempted to modify the original R3C ribozyme (73 nucleotides) by reducing the number of nucleotides while maintaining the maximum possible catalytic efficiency. By partially deleting both the "grip" (P4 + P5) and "hammer" (P3)(More)
We discuss a method for single frame super resolution with inpainting using the sparse representation of the image and the dictionary learning. We experimentally show that treating super resolution and inpainting simultaneously decreases the salt and pepper noise than super resolution after inpainting.
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