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The mechanisms underlying experience-dependent plasticity in the brain may depend on the AMPA subclass of glutamate receptors (AMPA-Rs). We examined the trafficking of AMPA-Rs into synapses in the developing rat barrel cortex. In vivo gene delivery was combined with in vitro recordings to show that experience drives recombinant GluR1, an AMPA-R subunit,(More)
Class 1 and 3 semaphorins repulse axons but bind to different cell surface proteins. We find that the two known semaphorin-binding proteins, plexin 1 (Plex 1) and neuropilin-1 (NP-1), form a stable complex. Plex 1 alone does not bind semaphorin-3A (Sema3A), but the NP-1/Plex 1 complex has a higher affinity for Sema3A than does NP-1 alone. While Sema3A(More)
Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) binds to neuropilin-1 (NP1) and activates the transmembrane Plexin to transduce a repulsive axon guidance signal. Here, we show that Sema3 signals are transduced equally effectively by PlexinA1 or PlexinA2, but not by PlexinA3. Deletion analysis of the PlexinA1 ectodomain demonstrates that the sema domain prevents PlexinA1 activation(More)
Somatosensory axon outgrowth is repulsed when soluble semaphorin D (semD) binds to growth cone neuropilin-1 (Npn-1). Here, semD ligand binding studies of Npn-1 mutants demonstrate that the sema domain binds to the amino-terminal quarter, or complement-binding (CUB) domain, of Npn-1. By herpes simplex virus- (HSV-) mediated expression of Npn-1 mutants in(More)
Activity-dependent changes of synaptic connections are facilitated by a variety of scaffold proteins, including PSD-95, Shank, SAP97 and GRIP, which serve to organize ion channels, receptors and enzymatic activities and to coordinate the actin cytoskeleton. The abundance of these scaffold proteins raises questions about the functional specificity of action(More)
Specific intestinal microbiota has been shown to induce Foxp3(+) regulatory T cell development. However, it remains unclear how development of another regulatory T cell subset, Tr1 cells, is regulated in the intestine. Here, we analyzed the role of two probiotic strains of intestinal bacteria, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium breve in T cell(More)
The hippocampus plays a central role in learning and memory. Although synaptic delivery of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) contributes to experience-dependent synaptic strengthening, its role in hippocampus-dependent learning remains elusive. By combining viral-mediated in vivo gene delivery with in vitro patch-clamp recordings, we found that the(More)
Collapsin response mediator protein 1 (CRMP1) is one of the CRMP family members that mediates signal transduction of axonal guidance and neuronal migration. We show here evidence that CRMP1 is involved in semaphorin3A (Sema3A)-induced spine development in the cerebral cortex. In the cultured cortical neurons from crmp1+/- mice, Sema3A increased the density(More)
Learning induces plastic changes in synapses. However, the regulatory molecules that orchestrate learning-induced synaptic changes are largely unknown. Although it is well established that cholinergic inputs from the medial septum modulate learning and memory, evidence for the cholinergic regulation of learning-induced synaptic plasticity is lacking. Here(More)