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Neuropilin-1 (NP-1) has been identified as a necessary component of a semaphorin D (SemD) receptor that repulses dorsal root ganglion (DRG) axons during development. SemA and SemE are related to SemD and bind to NP-1, but do not repulse DRG axons. By expressing NP-1 in retinal neurons and NP-2 in DRG neurons, we demonstrate that neuropilins are sufficient(More)
The mechanisms underlying experience-dependent plasticity in the brain may depend on the AMPA subclass of glutamate receptors (AMPA-Rs). We examined the trafficking of AMPA-Rs into synapses in the developing rat barrel cortex. In vivo gene delivery was combined with in vitro recordings to show that experience drives recombinant GluR1, an AMPA-R subunit,(More)
Class 1 and 3 semaphorins repulse axons but bind to different cell surface proteins. We find that the two known semaphorin-binding proteins, plexin 1 (Plex 1) and neuropilin-1 (NP-1), form a stable complex. Plex 1 alone does not bind semaphorin-3A (Sema3A), but the NP-1/Plex 1 complex has a higher affinity for Sema3A than does NP-1 alone. While Sema3A(More)
Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) binds to neuropilin-1 (NP1) and activates the transmembrane Plexin to transduce a repulsive axon guidance signal. Here, we show that Sema3 signals are transduced equally effectively by PlexinA1 or PlexinA2, but not by PlexinA3. Deletion analysis of the PlexinA1 ectodomain demonstrates that the sema domain prevents PlexinA1 activation(More)
Somatosensory axon outgrowth is repulsed when soluble semaphorin D (semD) binds to growth cone neuropilin-1 (Npn-1). Here, semD ligand binding studies of Npn-1 mutants demonstrate that the sema domain binds to the amino-terminal quarter, or complement-binding (CUB) domain, of Npn-1. By herpes simplex virus- (HSV-) mediated expression of Npn-1 mutants in(More)
Collapsin response mediator protein 1 (CRMP1) is one of the CRMP family members that mediates signal transduction of axonal guidance and neuronal migration. We show here evidence that CRMP1 is involved in semaphorin3A (Sema3A)-induced spine development in the cerebral cortex. In the cultured cortical neurons from crmp1+/- mice, Sema3A increased the density(More)
This paper examines empirically the determinants that led large Japanese manufacturers Ž. Ž. to 1 incorporate environmental goals in their decisions, 2 obtain environmental certifica-Ž. Ž. tion ISO 14001 , and 3 become early adopters of environmental certification. We estimate Ž. Ž. two sets of models: 1 models based on a profit maximization assumption and(More)
Activity-dependent changes of synaptic connections are facilitated by a variety of scaffold proteins, including PSD-95, Shank, SAP97 and GRIP, which serve to organize ion channels, receptors and enzymatic activities and to coordinate the actin cytoskeleton. The abundance of these scaffold proteins raises questions about the functional specificity of action(More)
The hippocampus plays a central role in learning and memory. Although synaptic delivery of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) contributes to experience-dependent synaptic strengthening, its role in hippocampus-dependent learning remains elusive. In a recent study,we found that the inhibitory avoidance (IA) task, a hippocampus-dependent contextual fear(More)
Loss of one type of sensory input can cause improved functionality of other sensory systems. Whereas this form of plasticity, cross-modal plasticity, is well established, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying it are still unclear. Here, we show that visual deprivation (VD) increases extracellular serotonin in the juvenile rat barrel cortex. This(More)