Takuya Shimada

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The responses of rodent populations to acorn masting were examined by reviewing 17 studies from the aspect of acorn nutrients and defensive chemicals. Oak species were grouped into three types based on their acorn nutritional characteristics by cluster analysis: Type 1 acorns (two North American red oaks, subgenus Erythrobalanus) were high in tannins and(More)
Tannins, a diverse group of water-soluble phenolics with high affinity to proteins, are widely distributed in various parts of plants, and have negative effects in herbivores after ingestion. Some mammalian species are thought to counteract tannins by secreting tannin-binding salivary proteins (TBSPs). Several types of TBSPs are found in the saliva of(More)
To investigate the therapeutical use of phage mixture for controlling gastrointestinal Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells, in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted. Three phages, SP15, SP21, and SP22 were selected from 26 phage stock screened from feces of stock animals and sewage influent. Addition of single or binary phage to the E. coli cell(More)
Nutritional compositions of acorns (Quercus serrata Thunb. and Quercus mongolica Fisch. var. grosseserrata Rehd. et Wils.) and horse chestnuts (Aesculus turbinata Blume) were analyzed. Major nutrients of acorns and horse chestnuts were carbohydrate, protein and fat. They proved to contain considerable amounts of tannins (7.28–11.72% dry mass−1) and saponins(More)
Two species of wood mouse, Apodemus argenteus and A. speciosus, were observed consuming and hoarding acorns of Quercus serrata and Castanopsis cuspidata. When each species of acorn was supplied individually, both species of mice used each species of acorn for eating and hoarding. When both species of acorn were supplied, A. argenteus consumed or hoarded(More)
We studied the defense mechanisms against the negative effects of tannins in acorns by using the Japanese wood mouse (Apodemus speciosus) and acorns of a Japanese deciduous oak Quercus crispula, which contain 9.9% tannins on a dry weight basis. For the experiment, we allocated 26 wood mice into two groups: acclimated (N = 12) and nonacclimated (N = 14).(More)
We examined the presence of selective consumption against tannins in acorns as a pre-ingestive countermeasure to plant secondary metabolites by using the Japanese wood mouse (Apodemus speciosus) and acorns of Quercus serrata, which contained ca. 6.4% tannins on a dry weight basis. In addition, the presence of selective consumption against proteins was also(More)
 Antinutritional effects of acorns and tannic acid on the Japanese wood mouse Apodemus speciosus were examined in the laboratory. The first feeding experiment was conducted for 15 days using three types of diet: control diet (laboratory chow for mice), acorns of Quercus serrata (QS), and acorns of Q. mongolica var. grosseserrata (QM), which differ in tannin(More)
Mammalian herbivores adopt various countermeasures against dietary tannins, which are among the most widespread plant secondary metabolites. The large Japanese wood mouse Apodemus speciosus produces proline-rich salivary tannin-binding proteins in response to tannins. Proline-rich proteins (PRPs) react with tannins to form stable complexes that are excreted(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of a high dose of methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS) on function of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNs) in dogs. ANIMALS 7 healthy male Beagles (body weight, 10.5 to 15 kg; age, 2 to 4 years). PROCEDURES All dogs were treated by IV administration of a high dose of MPSS (30 mg/kg). Additional doses of(More)