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Spermatogenesis is one of the most complex and longest processes of sequential cell proliferation and differentiation in the body, taking more than a month from spermatogonial stem cells, through meiosis, to sperm formation. The whole process, therefore, has never been reproduced in vitro in mammals, nor in any other species with a very few exceptions in(More)
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) is among the most common growth factors used in cultures to maintain self-renewal and proliferative capabilities of a variety of stem cells, including neural stem cells (NSCs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the control by FGF have remained elusive. Studies on mutant mice of FGF receptor substrate 2α (FRS2α), a(More)
Thalamocortical (TC) connectivity is reorganized by thalamic inputs during postnatal development; however, the dynamic characteristics of TC reorganization and the underlying mechanisms remain unexplored. We addressed this question using dendritic refinement of layer 4 (L4) stellate neurons in mouse barrel cortex (barrel cells) as a model; dendritic(More)
Mouse spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) can be cultured for multiplication and maintained for long periods while preserving their spermatogenic ability. Although the cultured SSCs, named germline stem (GS) cells, are targets of genome modification, this process remains technically difficult. In the present study, we tested TALEN and double-nicking(More)
OBJECTIVE To elucidate the characteristics of oldest-old patients with dementia in a Japanese memory clinic. METHODS We evaluated 365 consecutive patients with dementia who were referred to the Memory Clinic of Niigata Rehabilitation Hospital, Niigata, Japan over 4-year period. More than 85% of the patients lived in the communities within 15 km from the(More)
Diabetes mellitus (DM) causes not only hyperglycemia but oxidative stress, resulting mainly enhanced production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatments are applied various diseases including diabetic patients with unhealing foot ulcers, however, and also increases the formation of ROS. Recently, it has been(More)
Research in eco-evolutionary dynamics and community genetics has demonstrated that variation within a species can have strong impacts on associated communities and ecosystem processes. Yet, these studies have centred around individual focal species and at single trophic levels, ignoring the role of phenotypic variation in multiple taxa within an ecosystem.(More)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTB-1 does not degrade gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH), but this bacterium persistently coexists with a γ-HCH-degrading strain, Sphingomonas sp. MM-1, in a microbial community enriched by the technical formulation of HCH. Here we report the complete MTB-1 genome sequence, with a 6.6-Mb circular chromosome.