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Although esophagectomy with extended lymph node dissection can improve survival of patients with esophageal carcinoma, lymph node metastasis has remained one of the main recurrence patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of intensive treatment for recurrent lymph node metastasis. Recurrent lymph node metastasis was detected in 68(More)
UNLABELLED What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Radical cystectomy remains associated with comparatively high perioperative morbidity and mortality, despite improvements in surgical techniques and perioperative care. At present, most studies on the complications associated with open radical cystectomy were derived from Western academic(More)
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) is among the most common growth factors used in cultures to maintain self-renewal and proliferative capabilities of a variety of stem cells, including neural stem cells (NSCs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the control by FGF have remained elusive. Studies on mutant mice of FGF receptor substrate 2α (FRS2α), a(More)
Thalamocortical (TC) connectivity is reorganized by thalamic inputs during postnatal development; however, the dynamic characteristics of TC reorganization and the underlying mechanisms remain unexplored. We addressed this question using dendritic refinement of layer 4 (L4) stellate neurons in mouse barrel cortex (barrel cells) as a model; dendritic(More)
Long-term administration of glucocorticoids (GCs) causes osteoporosis with a rapid and severe bone loss and with a slow and prolonged bone disruption. Although the involvement of GCs in osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation has been studied extensively, their direct action on osteoclasts is still controversial and not conclusive. In this study, we(More)
BACKGROUND The usefulness of clip traction in endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for early esophageal carcinoma was investigated. METHODS A total of 87 patients who underwent ESD for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were included in the study. The hook knife method was used for ESD. Twenty patients underwent ESD without clip traction (non-clip(More)
Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are the only stem cells in the body that transmit genetic information to the next generation. The long-term propagation of rodent SSCs is now possible in vitro, and their genetic modification is feasible. However, their differentiation into sperm is possible only under in vivo conditions. Here we show a new in vitro system(More)
Osteoclasts require matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and cathepsin K to resorb bone, but the critical MMP has not been identified. Osteoclasts express MMP-9 and MMP-14, which do not appear limiting for resorption, and the expression of additional MMPs is not clear. MMP-12, also called metalloelastase, is reported only in a few cells, including tissue(More)
Previous observations that vitamin D hormone induces the expression of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) ligand (RANKL), thereby stimulating osteoclastogenesis in vitro, led to the widespread belief that 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1a,25(OH)2D3] is a bone-resorbing hormone. Here, we show that alfacalcidol, a prodrug metabolized(More)
Aureusidin synthase, a polyphenol oxidase (PPO), specifically catalyzes the oxidative formation of aurones from chalcones, which are plant flavonoids, and is responsible for the yellow coloration of snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) flowers. All known PPOs have been found to be localized in plastids, whereas flavonoid biosynthesis is thought to take place in(More)