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With the increasing cure rate of paediatric cancers, infertility, as one of the adverse effects of treatments, has become an important concern for patients and their families. Since semen cryopreservation is applicable only for post-pubertal patients, alternative pre-pubertal measures are necessary. Here we demonstrate that testis tissue cryopreservation is(More)
Although esophagectomy with extended lymph node dissection can improve survival of patients with esophageal carcinoma, lymph node metastasis has remained one of the main recurrence patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of intensive treatment for recurrent lymph node metastasis. Recurrent lymph node metastasis was detected in 68(More)
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) is among the most common growth factors used in cultures to maintain self-renewal and proliferative capabilities of a variety of stem cells, including neural stem cells (NSCs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the control by FGF have remained elusive. Studies on mutant mice of FGF receptor substrate 2α (FRS2α), a(More)
The in vitro propagation of mouse spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) became possible in 2003; these cultured SSCs were named germ-line stem (GS) cells. To date, however, it has not been possible to induce spermatogenesis from GS cells in vitro. Recently, we succeeded in producing functional sperm from primitive spermatogonia in explanted neonatal mouse testis(More)
Parasites are ubiquitous in natural systems and ecosystem-level effects should be proportional to the amount of biomass or energy flow altered by the parasites. Here we quantified the extent to which a manipulative parasite altered the flow of energy through a forest-stream ecosystem. In a Japanese headwater stream, camel crickets and grasshoppers(More)
Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are the only stem cells in the body that transmit genetic information to the next generation. The long-term propagation of rodent SSCs is now possible in vitro, and their genetic modification is feasible. However, their differentiation into sperm is possible only under in vivo conditions. Here we show a new in vitro system(More)
BACKGROUND The usefulness of clip traction in endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for early esophageal carcinoma was investigated. METHODS A total of 87 patients who underwent ESD for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were included in the study. The hook knife method was used for ESD. Twenty patients underwent ESD without clip traction (non-clip(More)
OBJECTIVE Biomarkers are increasingly important to diagnose and test treatments of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson disease (PD). This study compared neuroimaging, neurochemical, and olfactory potential biomarkers to detect central dopamine (DA) deficiency and distinguish PD from multiple system atrophy (MSA). METHODS In 77 PD, 57 MSA, and 87(More)
Aureusidin synthase, a polyphenol oxidase (PPO), specifically catalyzes the oxidative formation of aurones from chalcones, which are plant flavonoids, and is responsible for the yellow coloration of snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) flowers. All known PPOs have been found to be localized in plastids, whereas flavonoid biosynthesis is thought to take place in(More)
UNLABELLED What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Radical cystectomy remains associated with comparatively high perioperative morbidity and mortality, despite improvements in surgical techniques and perioperative care. At present, most studies on the complications associated with open radical cystectomy were derived from Western academic(More)