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Replication of mitochondrial DNA is highly asymmetric between the heavy (H) and the light (L) strands. The parental H strand is displaced by the daughter H strand and remains in a single-stranded state until the daughter L strand is synthesized. To examine the effect of this asymmetric replication on mutagenesis, we determined sequences of mtDNAs from 43(More)
This review is devoted to the molecular genetics and bioenergetics of human mitochondria related to the mechanism of aging. Morphological and functional changes of mitochondria associated with age and age-related disease are overviewed with special reference to the changes in enzymes encoded by mitochondrial-inherent genome. The somatically acquired(More)
The human mitochondrial genome is very small and economically packed; the expression of the whole genome is essential for the maintenance of mitochondrial bioenergetic function. Mutation occurs at a much higher rate in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) than in chromosomal DNA. Transient heteroplasmy of mtDNA occurs after a mutational event; the random pattern(More)
Immunoblotting studies on mitochondria prepared from the striata of patients who died of Parkinson's disease were performed using specific antisera against Complexes I, III and IV. In 4 out of 5 patients with Parkinson's disease, the 30-, 25- and 24-kDa subunits of Complex I were moderately to markedly decreased. No clear difference was noted in(More)
To analyze the structure of LH in three patients with immunologically anomalous LH, the whole coding region of the LH beta-subunit gene was examined. These patients were infertile, and their serum LH levels could not be measured with an immunoassay kit. Immunoblotting of the LH beta-subunit showed no marked changes in the molecular size of LH beta. Genomic(More)
The nucleotide sequence of the gene for a highly alkaline, low-molecular-mass pectate lyase (Pel-15) from an alkaliphilic Bacillus isolate was determined. It harbored an open reading frame of 672 bp encoding the mature enzyme of 197 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 20 924 Da. The deduced amino-acid sequence of the mature enzyme showed very low(More)
The expression of mRNAs for the glial glutamate transporters, GLT-1 and GLAST, in the rat brain accompanied with morphine dependence and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal was investigated by Northern blot analysis. The expression of GLT-1 mRNA was significantly decreased in the striatum and thalamus of morphine-dependent rats, and significantly increased in(More)
Cytopathogenic and non-cytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDVs) were isolated from cattle with mucosal disease or persistent infection in Japan. These isolates were compared for antigenic properties by cross-neutralization tests with Japanese reference strains of BVDV belonging to classical type 1. Significantly low cross-reactivity to reference(More)
Alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. strain KSM-P103 was found to exoproduce a high-alkaline pectate lyase (pectate transeliminase, EC The gene for this enzyme from the alkaliphile was cloned and sequenced for the first time. The structural gene contained a 1,038-bp open reading frame encoding 345 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of the mature(More)
During a survey of the prevalence of virulent Rhodococcus equi at horse-breeding farms by plasmid and protein profiles, cryptic plasmids of various sizes were found in 66 (3.8%) of 1,725 isolates from feces of horses and 129 (5.9%) of 2,200 isolates from soil. Twenty-two isolates, which contained cryptic plasmids of different sizes, were found by plasmid(More)